Skip to main content

World Bird Info

Aims and the Website
Birds Search
Family Lists
News
World Map
Useful Links
Forums
Acknowledgements
Rationale
New 2013 Family list with annotations
Phylogenetic Trees
KEY TO ICZN CODES
  
World Bird Info > Pages > BirdCitationView  

 ‭(Hidden)‬ Content Editor Web Part

English NameSandwich Tern
Scientific NameThalasseus sandvicensis
German NameBrandseeschwalbe
Spanish NameCharrán Patinegro
French NameSterne caugek
Synonym
%THALASSEUS SANDVICENSIS
<Sterna sandvicensis Latham,1787,Supplement to the general synopsis of birds,1,p.296; based on the Sandwich Tern of Latham,Gen.Synops.,6,p.356.). (Sandwich,Kent,England).
!Thalasseus Boie,1822,Isis(Oken),Bd.1,col.563.Type,by subsequent designation (Wagler,1832,Isis,col.1225),"Th.cantiacus" = Sterna cantiaca J.F.Gmelin,1789 =Sterna sandvicensis Latham,1787.
!Note:Gochfeld & Burger,1996,Family STERNIDAE(Terns),in del Hoyo,Elliott & Sargatal(eds),Handbook of the Birds of the World,3,p.624 stated:"...all [members of Thalasseus] are larger than any typical Sterna and have elongated crest feathers and most have
!(ctd): bright yellow or orangeto orange-red bill.They have characteristic display patterns and breed in very dense colonies,with nests often arranged in a hexagonal pattern and incubating adults about a body length apart.The chicks of these species tend
!(ctd): to form a creche,particularly when disturbed,a characteristic not found in any other tern except Sooty Tern."Hacket,1989,Condor,91,73-90,united Thalasseus with Sterna based on electrophoretic evidence.More recently,Bridge,Jones & Baker,
!(ctd): 2005,Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution,35,pp.459-69 recognized Thalasseus on the basis of sequencing 2800 bp of mitochondrial DNA.
|Actochelidon Kaup,1829,Skizzirte Entwicklungs-Geschichte und naturliches system der europaischen Thierwelt,p.39.Type,by monotypy,Sterna cantiaca J.F.Gmelin,1789 = Sterna sandvicensis Latham,1787. (= Thalasseus)
|Pelecanopus Wagler,1832,Isis (Oken),3,col.277.Type,by monotypy,Sterna pelecanoides King,1828 = Sterna cristata Stephens,1826 = race of Sterna bergii Lichtenstein,1823. (= Thalasseus)
#Thalasseus sandvicensis sandvicensis {br.Europe E to Caspian Sea;winters from Caspian,Black & Mediterranean S to coasts W & S.Africa,and from Red Sea to nwIndia,Sri Lanka}
$African Tern Latham,1785,A General Synopsis of Birds,3,pt.2,p.354. (juvenile).
$Sandwich Tern Latham,1785,A General Synopsis of Birds,3,pt.2,p.356. (Sandwich in Kent).
$Sterna africana [as [Sterna] ] J.F.Gmelin,1789,Systema Naturae,editio decima tertia,tom.1,pars 2,p.605;based on "African Tern" of Latham,1785.("Habitat in Africa";ex Latham).
$Sterna cantiaca [as [Sterna] Cantiaca] J.F.Gmelin,1789,Systema Naturae,editio decima tertia,tom.1,pars 2,p.606;based on "Sandwich Tern" of Latham,1785.("Habitat...ad littora Cantii";ex Latham).
$?Sterna columbina 1789,Fauna Boica.Durchgedachte Geschichte der in Baiern einheimischen und zahmen Thiere,1,p.232. (Neuenburg, on migration). (?= T.s.sandvicensis)
$Note: Hartert,1921,Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna,Heft XIII-XIV(Feb.),p.1699 stated:"Undeutliche Beschr[eibung]"
$Sterna boysii [as [Sterna] Boysii] Latham,1790,Index Ornithologicus,2,p.806;based on "Sandwich Tern" of Latham,1785.
$Sterna stubberica Otto,1790,Naturgeschichte der vierfüssigen Thiere,mit Anmerkungen und Vermehrungen aus dem Franz. übersetzt,31,p.104 and fig. (Island of Stubber,Baltic Sea).
$Sterna canescens Meyer & Wolf,1810,Taschenbuch der deutschen Vögelkunde,2,p.458. New name for Sterna cantiaca J.F.Gmelin,1789.
$Thalasseus cantiacus Boie,1822,Isis (Oken),col.563.
$Thalasseus cantiaca Boie,1822,Isis (Oken),col.880.
$Actochelidon cantiaca Kaup,1829,Skizzirte Entwicklungs-Geschichte und naturliches system der europaischen Thierwelt,pp.31,196.
$Thalasseus canescens C.L.Brehm,1831,Handbuch der Naturgeschichte aller Vögel Deutschlands,p.776.
$Thalasseus candicans C.L.Brehm,1831,Handbuch der Naturgeschichte aller Vögel Deutschlands,p.777. (islands in the Kattegat,Helsingör & North Sea Coast).
$Thalasseus cantianus C.L.Brehm,1855,Naumannia,p.295.
$Thalasseus paulidewuerttemberg [as [Pauli de Württb.] C.L.Brehm,1855,Der Vollständige Vogelfang,p.346. (Greece).
$Thalasseus cantianus gallicus A.E.Brehm,1866,Verzeichniss der Sammlung C.L.Brehm,p.14. Nomen nudum.
$Sterna sandvicensis sandvicensis Baird,Brewer & Ridgway,1884,The Water Birds of North America,2,p.289,footnote.
$Actochelidon sandvicensis Salvadori,1887,Elenco degli Uccelli Italiani,p.275.
$Thalasseus sandvicensis sandvicensis Baker,E.C.Stuart,1930,The Fauna of British India including Ceylon and Burma,7,p.501.
#Thalasseus sandvicensis acuflavidus {seUnited States:Virginia S to Belize,and S through West Indies;winters Caribbean S to Peru,Uruguay}
<Sterna acuflavida Cabot,1848["1847"],Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History,2,p.257. (Tancah,Yucatan.)
$Sterna boysii Nuttall,1834,A manual of the ornithology of the United States and of Canada.The Water Birds,p.276. Not Sterna boysii Latham,1790.
$Sterna cantiaca Audubon,1835,Ornithological Biography,3,p.531,pl.279. Not Sterna cantiaca J.F.Gmelin,1789.
$Thalasseus cantiacus Bonaparte,1838,A geographical and comparative list of the birds of Europe and North America,p.61. (part).
$Thalasseus acutiflavus [as [Thalasseus]] Gundlach,1861,Journal für Ornithologie,9,no.53(Sept.),p.346. (Cuba).
$Thalasseus acutiflava Gundlach,1862,Journal für Ornithologie,10,no.56(March),p.94. (Cuba).
$Sterna (Thalasseus) cantiaca Coues,1874,Birds of the Northwest,p.673. (part).
$Sterna cantiaca acutiflava Ridgway,1880,Proceedings of the U.S.National Museum,3,p.208.
$Sterna sandvicensis acutiflava Baird,Brewer & Ridgway,1884,The Water Birds of North America,2,p.288.
$Actochelidon acutiflava [as [Actochelidon]] Heine & Reichenow,1890["1982-90"],Nomenclator Musei Heineani Ornithologici,p.355.
$Thalasseus sandvicensis acuflavidus Oberholser,1917,Auk,34,p.199.
#Thalasseus sandvicensis eurygnathus {small numbers off Puerto Rico and Virgins Is;Aruba,Trinidad & Tobago,Venezuela:Isla Margarita,French Guiana,eBrazil,Uruguay,Argentina}
<Sterna eurygnatha Saunders,1876,Proceedings of the Scientific Meetings of the Zoological Society of London for the Year 1876,Pt.3,p.654,f.1.(Santa Catharina, Brazil.)
#Note:Eurygnatha has been treated as a species distinct from S.sandvicencis;e.g.Peters 1934,Hellmayr & Conover 1948b,Meyer de Schauensee 1970,Ridgely et al 2001.However, the two taxa appear to interbreed in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.
#(ctd): To further complicate matters, it has been suggested(Voous 1968,Escalante 1973) that South American populations of eurygnatha should be treated as subspecifically distinct from Caribbean populations.
$Sterna galericulata Pelzeln,1870,Zur Ornithologie Brasiliens,Resultate von Johann Natterers Reisen in den Jahren 1817 bis 1835,3,p.324. (Brazil). Not Sterna galericulata M.C.H.Lichtenstein,1823.
$Sterna cayennensis G.R.Gray,1871,Hand-list of the genera and species of birds ...in the British Museum,3,p.120,no.11051. (part: Venezuela).
$Phaethusa elegans [as [Phaëthusa] Heine & Reichenow,1890["1982-90"],Nomenclator Musei Heineani Ornithologici,p.355. (part:Brazil). Not Sterna elegans Gambel,1848.
$Phaethusa cayennensis [as [Phaëthusa] Heine & Reichenow,1890["1982-90"],Nomenclator Musei Heineani Ornithologici,p.355. (part:Brazil). Not Sterna elegans Gambel,1848.
$Sterna elegans Cory,1893,Auk,p.220. (Tobago).
$Thalasseus eurygnathus Ridgway,1919,Bulletin of the U.S.National Museum,50,pt.8,p.474.
$Thalasseus eurygnatha Peters,1934,Checklist of Birds of the World,2,p.344.
$Sterna sandvicensis eurygnathus Blake,1977,Manual of South American Birds,Vol.1,p.637.
$S[terna] s[andvicensis] eurygnatha Dickinson,2003,The Howard & Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World,3rd edn.,p.149.
$T[halasseus] s[andvicensis] eurygnathus Clements,2007,The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World,6th edn,p.106.