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English NameSandwich Tern
Scientific NameThalasseus sandvicensis
German NameBrandseeschwalbe
Spanish NameCharrán Patinegro
French NameSterne caugek
<Sterna sandvicensis Latham,1787,Supplement to the general synopsis of birds,1,p.296; based on the Sandwich Tern of Latham,Gen.Synops.,6,p.356.). (Sandwich,Kent,England).
!Thalasseus Boie,1822,Isis(Oken),Bd.1,col.563.Type,by subsequent designation (Wagler,1832,Isis,col.1225),"Th.cantiacus" = Sterna cantiaca J.F.Gmelin,1789 =Sterna sandvicensis Latham,1787.
!Note:Gochfeld & Burger,1996,Family STERNIDAE(Terns),in del Hoyo,Elliott & Sargatal(eds),Handbook of the Birds of the World,3,p.624 stated:"...all [members of Thalasseus] are larger than any typical Sterna and have elongated crest feathers and most have
!(ctd): bright yellow or orangeto orange-red bill.They have characteristic display patterns and breed in very dense colonies,with nests often arranged in a hexagonal pattern and incubating adults about a body length apart.The chicks of these species tend
!(ctd): to form a creche,particularly when disturbed,a characteristic not found in any other tern except Sooty Tern."Hacket,1989,Condor,91,73-90,united Thalasseus with Sterna based on electrophoretic evidence.More recently,Bridge,Jones & Baker,
!(ctd): 2005,Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution,35,pp.459-69 recognized Thalasseus on the basis of sequencing 2800 bp of mitochondrial DNA.
|Actochelidon Kaup,1829,Skizzirte Entwicklungs-Geschichte und naturliches system der europaischen Thierwelt,p.39.Type,by monotypy,Sterna cantiaca J.F.Gmelin,1789 = Sterna sandvicensis Latham,1787. (= Thalasseus)
|Pelecanopus Wagler,1832,Isis (Oken),3,col.277.Type,by monotypy,Sterna pelecanoides King,1828 = Sterna cristata Stephens,1826 = race of Sterna bergii Lichtenstein,1823. (= Thalasseus)
#Thalasseus sandvicensis sandvicensis {br.Europe E to Caspian Sea;winters from Caspian,Black & Mediterranean S to coasts W & S.Africa,and from Red Sea to nwIndia,Sri Lanka}
$African Tern Latham,1785,A General Synopsis of Birds,3,pt.2,p.354. (juvenile).
$Sandwich Tern Latham,1785,A General Synopsis of Birds,3,pt.2,p.356. (Sandwich in Kent).
$Sterna africana [as [Sterna] ] J.F.Gmelin,1789,Systema Naturae,editio decima tertia,tom.1,pars 2,p.605;based on "African Tern" of Latham,1785.("Habitat in Africa";ex Latham).
$Sterna cantiaca [as [Sterna] Cantiaca] J.F.Gmelin,1789,Systema Naturae,editio decima tertia,tom.1,pars 2,p.606;based on "Sandwich Tern" of Latham,1785.(" littora Cantii";ex Latham).
$?Sterna columbina 1789,Fauna Boica.Durchgedachte Geschichte der in Baiern einheimischen und zahmen Thiere,1,p.232. (Neuenburg, on migration). (?= T.s.sandvicensis)
$Note: Hartert,1921,Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna,Heft XIII-XIV(Feb.),p.1699 stated:"Undeutliche Beschr[eibung]"
$Sterna boysii [as [Sterna] Boysii] Latham,1790,Index Ornithologicus,2,p.806;based on "Sandwich Tern" of Latham,1785.
$Sterna stubberica Otto,1790,Naturgeschichte der vierfüssigen Thiere,mit Anmerkungen und Vermehrungen aus dem Franz. übersetzt,31,p.104 and fig. (Island of Stubber,Baltic Sea).
$Sterna canescens Meyer & Wolf,1810,Taschenbuch der deutschen Vögelkunde,2,p.458. New name for Sterna cantiaca J.F.Gmelin,1789.
$Thalasseus cantiacus Boie,1822,Isis (Oken),col.563.
$Thalasseus cantiaca Boie,1822,Isis (Oken),col.880.
$Actochelidon cantiaca Kaup,1829,Skizzirte Entwicklungs-Geschichte und naturliches system der europaischen Thierwelt,pp.31,196.
$Thalasseus canescens C.L.Brehm,1831,Handbuch der Naturgeschichte aller Vögel Deutschlands,p.776.
$Thalasseus candicans C.L.Brehm,1831,Handbuch der Naturgeschichte aller Vögel Deutschlands,p.777. (islands in the Kattegat,Helsingör & North Sea Coast).
$Thalasseus cantianus C.L.Brehm,1855,Naumannia,p.295.
$Thalasseus paulidewuerttemberg [as [Pauli de Württb.] C.L.Brehm,1855,Der Vollständige Vogelfang,p.346. (Greece).
$Thalasseus cantianus gallicus A.E.Brehm,1866,Verzeichniss der Sammlung C.L.Brehm,p.14. Nomen nudum.
$Sterna sandvicensis sandvicensis Baird,Brewer & Ridgway,1884,The Water Birds of North America,2,p.289,footnote.
$Actochelidon sandvicensis Salvadori,1887,Elenco degli Uccelli Italiani,p.275.
$Thalasseus sandvicensis sandvicensis Baker,E.C.Stuart,1930,The Fauna of British India including Ceylon and Burma,7,p.501.
#Thalasseus sandvicensis acuflavidus {seUnited States:Virginia S to Belize,and S through West Indies;winters Caribbean S to Peru,Uruguay}
<Sterna acuflavida Cabot,1848["1847"],Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History,2,p.257. (Tancah,Yucatan.)
$Sterna boysii Nuttall,1834,A manual of the ornithology of the United States and of Canada.The Water Birds,p.276. Not Sterna boysii Latham,1790.
$Sterna cantiaca Audubon,1835,Ornithological Biography,3,p.531,pl.279. Not Sterna cantiaca J.F.Gmelin,1789.
$Thalasseus cantiacus Bonaparte,1838,A geographical and comparative list of the birds of Europe and North America,p.61. (part).
$Thalasseus acutiflavus [as [Thalasseus]] Gundlach,1861,Journal für Ornithologie,9,no.53(Sept.),p.346. (Cuba).
$Thalasseus acutiflava Gundlach,1862,Journal für Ornithologie,10,no.56(March),p.94. (Cuba).
$Sterna (Thalasseus) cantiaca Coues,1874,Birds of the Northwest,p.673. (part).
$Sterna cantiaca acutiflava Ridgway,1880,Proceedings of the U.S.National Museum,3,p.208.
$Sterna sandvicensis acutiflava Baird,Brewer & Ridgway,1884,The Water Birds of North America,2,p.288.
$Actochelidon acutiflava [as [Actochelidon]] Heine & Reichenow,1890["1982-90"],Nomenclator Musei Heineani Ornithologici,p.355.
$Thalasseus sandvicensis acuflavidus Oberholser,1917,Auk,34,p.199.
#Thalasseus sandvicensis eurygnathus {small numbers off Puerto Rico and Virgins Is;Aruba,Trinidad & Tobago,Venezuela:Isla Margarita,French Guiana,eBrazil,Uruguay,Argentina}
<Sterna eurygnatha Saunders,1876,Proceedings of the Scientific Meetings of the Zoological Society of London for the Year 1876,Pt.3,p.654,f.1.(Santa Catharina, Brazil.)
#Note:Eurygnatha has been treated as a species distinct from S.sandvicencis;e.g.Peters 1934,Hellmayr & Conover 1948b,Meyer de Schauensee 1970,Ridgely et al 2001.However, the two taxa appear to interbreed in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.
#(ctd): To further complicate matters, it has been suggested(Voous 1968,Escalante 1973) that South American populations of eurygnatha should be treated as subspecifically distinct from Caribbean populations.
$Sterna galericulata Pelzeln,1870,Zur Ornithologie Brasiliens,Resultate von Johann Natterers Reisen in den Jahren 1817 bis 1835,3,p.324. (Brazil). Not Sterna galericulata M.C.H.Lichtenstein,1823.
$Sterna cayennensis G.R.Gray,1871,Hand-list of the genera and species of birds the British Museum,3,p.120,no.11051. (part: Venezuela).
$Phaethusa elegans [as [Phaëthusa] Heine & Reichenow,1890["1982-90"],Nomenclator Musei Heineani Ornithologici,p.355. (part:Brazil). Not Sterna elegans Gambel,1848.
$Phaethusa cayennensis [as [Phaëthusa] Heine & Reichenow,1890["1982-90"],Nomenclator Musei Heineani Ornithologici,p.355. (part:Brazil). Not Sterna elegans Gambel,1848.
$Sterna elegans Cory,1893,Auk,p.220. (Tobago).
$Thalasseus eurygnathus Ridgway,1919,Bulletin of the U.S.National Museum,50,pt.8,p.474.
$Thalasseus eurygnatha Peters,1934,Checklist of Birds of the World,2,p.344.
$Sterna sandvicensis eurygnathus Blake,1977,Manual of South American Birds,Vol.1,p.637.
$S[terna] s[andvicensis] eurygnatha Dickinson,2003,The Howard & Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World,3rd edn.,p.149.
$T[halasseus] s[andvicensis] eurygnathus Clements,2007,The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World,6th edn,p.106.