$Phoenicoparrus jamesi Salvadori,1895,Catalogue of the birds in the British Museum,27,Chenomorphae,Crypturi and Ratitae,p.22.
Although Black Vultures often breed in dense woodlands, and most roosts are located in woods, they generally forage in open habitats, where they can make maximum use of local enhancement information when searching for carcasses
"Laying dates very variable: in Ohio(USA),March-May;in Panama October-December.;in Colombia May-November." (HBW,2,p.40)
Resident throughout much of its range, but in winter many individuals withdraw from extreme northern portions of range and from higher altitudes. For example, in Missouri, moves southward between mid-October and mid-November, and remains absent until end of February or early March. Black Vultures also engage in short-term, local movements when weather becomes unfavorable, retiring ahead of adverse conditions and returning when conditions improve.
Eisenmann (1963) in Panama and Skutch (1969) in Costa Rica reported possible fall migration of Black Vultures through these areas. However, there is some question as to whether the observed movements involved truly migrating birds or were more local movements.