$Colymbus cucullatus Pallas,1811,Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica,sistens omnium Animalium in extenso Imperis Rossico et adjacentibus maribus,2,p.355. (part) (Siberia).
for breeding,prefers fresh or brackish water,fringed by vegetation,with sizeable sheets of open water for foraging.Africa:on cold montane lacks to 3000m plus;New Zealand,alpine & subalpine lakes to 1000m;Disperses to coasts,estuaries & large lakes
"Mainly Apr-Jul (Jan-Sept) in Europe;all months in tropical Africa,w.peaks.usu.in.or immly after long rains;...laying Nov-Mar in Australasia." (HBW,1,p.193)
Migratory & dispersive,especially in North. After breeding,many make local movements to moult on large lakes & reservoirs. Others moult on breeding waters. After moult,more marked movement towards coast. Concentrations of up to 20,000 on Ijselmeer,Holland, and 20,000 on Turkish coast of Black Sea. In Central Europe and Australia many winter on large lakes.Thought to migrate following coast,and also over land but little known.No true migration in Africa, where extensive dispersal is related to rains.In New Zealand,local post-breeding dispersal; occaionsaly performs large-scale movements.Nominate race vagrant to Senegal and Taiwan. Race australis accidental to Moluccas.