Marine. Nests on ice-free rocky coasts,tending to occupy higher ground than Pygoscelis papua. Often in extensive open areas to accommodate large colonies.Colonies can be far from open sea.Inshore feeder.
"October-February,well synchronized,but earlier in northern than in southern colonies...and earlier in favourable than in unfavourable conditions in same colony." (HANZAB,p.169)
Dispersive. Adults do not moult at colony,but rather on ice floes.After breeding,birds move north towards rich feeding grounds.Most immatures reain in zone of pack ice for at least 2 years,and sometimes 3 to 5 years,before returning to natl colony.Immatures normally return to colonies later than adults,with a delay of up to 2 to 3 months. Accidental in South America,Falklands,Australia,New Zealand and several islands of Pacific and Indian Oceans.