English Name Scientific Name German Name Spanish Name
Rufous-cheeked Nightjar Caprimulgus rufigena Rostwangen-Nachtschwalbe Chotacabras Carirrojo
Donaldson-Smith's Nightjar Caprimulgus donaldsoni Dornbusch-Nachtschwalbe Chotacabras espinero
Montane Nightjar Caprimulgus poliocephalus Höhennachtschwalbe Chotacabras Abisinio
Ruwenzori Nightjar Caprimulgus ruwenzorii Ruwenzorinachtschwalbe Chotacarbas del Ruwenzori
Indian Nightjar Caprimulgus asiaticus Hindunachtschwalbe Chotocabras Hindú
Swamp Nightjar Caprimulgus natalensis Natalnachtschwalbe Chotacabras de Natal
Nechisar Nightjar Caprimulgus solala Nechisar-nachtschwalbe Chotacabras de Nechisar
Plain Nightjar Caprimulgus inornatus Marmornachtschwalbe Chotacabras sencillo
Star-spotted Nightjar Caprimulgus stellatus Sternnachtschwalbe Chotacabras Estrellado
Savanna Nightjar Caprimulgus affinis Savannennachtschwalbe Chotacabras de Sabana
Freckled Nightjar Caprimulgus tristigma Fleckennachtschwalbe Chotacabras Pecoso
Bonaparte's Nightjar Caprimulgus concretus Sundanachtschwalbe Chotacabras de Bonaparte
Salvadori's Nightjar@ Caprimulgus pulchellus Salvadorinachtschwalbe Chotacabras de Salvadori
Collared Nightjar@ Gactornis enarratus Halsband-Nachtschwalbe Chotacabras Acollarado
Bates's Nightjar Caprimulgus batesi Waldnachtschwalbe Chotacabras de Bates
Square-tailed Nightjar Caprimulgus fossii Welwitschnachtschwalbe Chotacabras de Fosse
Slender-tailed Nightjar Caprimulgus clarus Kurzschleppen-Nachtschwalbe Chotacabras Colifino
Long-tailed Nightjar Caprimulgus climacurus Schleppennachtschwalbe Chotacabras Rabudo
Priogine's Nightjar@ Caprimulgus prigoginei Prigoginenachtschwalbe Chotacabras de Prigogine
Standard-winged Nightjar Caprimulgus longipennis Fahnennachtschwalbe Chotacabras Portaestandarte
Pennant-winged Nightjar Caprimulgus vexillarius Flaggennachtschwalbe Chotacabras Cuelgacintas
Ladder-tailed Nightjar Hydropsalis climacocerca Staffelschwanz-Nachtschwalbe Chotacabras de Escalera
Scissor-tailed Nightjar Hydropsalis torquata Scherenschwanz-Nachtschwalbe Chotacabras Tijereta
Swallow-tailed Nightjar Uropsalis segmentata Schwalbenschwanz-Nachtschwalbe Chotacabras Golondrinas
Lyre-tailed Nightjar Uropsalis lyra Leierschwanz-Nachtschwalbe Chotacabras lyra
Long-trained Nightjar Macropsalis forcipata Hakenschwanz-Nachtschwalbe Chotacabras Coludo
White-winged Nightjar Eleothreptus candicans Weißflügel-Nachtschwalbe Chotacaras Aliblanco
Sickle-winged Nightjar Eleothreptus anomala Sichelschwingen-Nachtschwalbe Chotacabras Pantanero
White-tailed Nightjar Hydropsalis cayennensis Weißschwanz-Nachtschwalbe Chotacabras Coliblanco
Spot-tailed Nightjar Hydropsalis maculicaudus Fleckschwanz-Nachtschwalbe Chotacabras Colipinto
Scrub Nightjar Nyctidromus anthonyi Equadornachtschwalbe Chotacabras de Anthony
Little Nightjar Setopagis parvulus Zwergnachtschwalbe Chotacabras Chico
Todd's Nightjar Setopagis heterurus Toddnachscwalbe Chotacabras de Todd
Cayenne Nightjar@ Setopagis maculosus Cayennenachtschwalbe Chotacabras Guayanés
Blackish Nightjar Nyctipolus nigrescens Trauernachtschwalbe Chotacabras Negruzco
Roraiman Nightjar@ Setopagis whitelyi Roraimanachtschwalbe Chotacabras del Roraima
Pygmy Nightjar@ Nyctipolus hirundinaceus Spixnachtschwalbe Chotacabras Pigmeo
Brown Nightjar Veles binotatus Bootschwanz-Nachtschwalbe Chotocabras bimaculado
Red-necked Nightjar Caprimulgus ruficollis Rothals-Ziegenmelker Chotacabras Pardo
Indian Jungle Nightjar Caprimulgus indicus Dschungelnachtschwalbe Chotacabras de Jungla
Grey Nightjar Caprimulgus jotaka Dschungelnachtschwalbe Chotacabras Jotaka
Eurasian Nightjar Caprimulgus europaeus Ziegenmelker Chotacabras Gris
Sombre Nightjar Caprimulgus fraenatus Zügelnachtschwalbe Chotacabras Oscuro
Egyptian Nightjar Caprimulgus aegyptius Pharaonenziegenmelker Chotacabras Sahariano
Sykes's Nightjar Caprimulgus mahrattensis Sykesnachtschwalbe Chotacabras Mahratta
Vaurie's Nightjar@ Caprimulgus centralasicus Vaurienachtschwalbe Chotocabras de Vaurie
Nubian Nightjar Caprimulgus nubicus Nubischer Ziegenmelker Chotacabras Núbico
Golden Nightjar Caprimulgus eximius Prachtnachtschwalbe Chotacabras Dorado
Madagascan Nightjar Caprimulgus madagascariensis Madagaskarnachtschwalbe Chotacabras Malgache
Jerdon's Nightjar Caprimulgus atripennis Maharadschanachtschwalbe Chotacabras Marajá
Large-tailed Nightjar Caprimulgus macrurus Langschwanz-Nachtschwalbe Chotacabras Macruro
Andaman Nightjar Caprimulgus andamanicus Nachtschwalbe andamanische Chotacabras de Andaman
Mees's Nightjar@ Caprimulgus meesi Mees-nachtschwalbe Chotacaabras de Mees
Philippine Nightjar@ Caprimulgus manillensis Philippinennachtschwalbe Chotacabras Filipino
Sulawesi Nightjar@ Caprimulgus celebensis Sulawesinachtschwalbe Chotacabras de Célebes
Black-shouldered Nightjar Caprimulgus nigriscapularis Schwarzschulter-Nachtschwalbe Chotacabras Hombronegro
Fiery-necked Nightjar Caprimulgus pectoralis Pfeifnachtschwalbe Chotocabras Músico
Common Pauraque Nyctidromus albicollis Pauraquenachtschwalbe Chotocabras Pauraque
Common Poorwill Phalaenoptilus nuttallii Winternachtschwalbe Chotacabras Pachacua
Jamaican Poorwill@ Siphonorhis americanus Jamaikanachtschwalbe Chotacabras Jamaicano
Least Poorwill Siphonorhis brewsteri Haitinachtschwalbe Chotacabras Torico
Eared Poorwill@ Nyctiphrynus mcleodii Ohrennachtschwalbe Chotacabras Prío
Yucatan Poorwill Nyctiphrynus yucatanicus Yucatannachtschwalbe Chotacabras Yucateco
Ocellated Poorwill Nyctiphrynus ocellatus Augennachtschwalbe Chotacabras Ocelado
Choco Poorwill Nyctiphrynus rosenbergi Rosenberg-Nachtschwalbe Chotacabras del Chocó
Chuck-Will's-Widow Antrostomus carolinensis Carolinanachtsschwalbe Chotocabras de la Carolina
Rufous Nightjar Antrostomus rufus Rostnachtschwalbe Chotacabras Colorado
Cuban Nightjar@ Antrostomus cubanensis Kubanachtschwalbe Chocacabras Cubano
Hispaniolan Nightjar Antrostomus ekmani Hispaniolanachtschwalbe Chotacabras de la Española
Tawny-collared Nightjar@ Antrostomus salvini Salvinnachtschwalbe Chotacabras Ticuer
Yucatan Nightjar Antrostomus badius Guatemalanachtschwalbe Chotacabras de Guatemalteco
Silky-tailed Nightjar Antrostomus sericocaudatus Seidennachtschwalbe Chotacabras Coladeseda
Buff-collared Nightjar Antrostomus ridgwayi Braunhals-Nachtschwalbe Chotacabras Tucuchillo
Eastern Whip-poor-will Antrostomus vociferus Schwarzkehl-Nachtschwalbe Chotacabras Cuerprihuiu
Puerto Rican Nightjar@ Antrostomus noctitherus Puerto-Rico-Nachtsschwalbe Chotacabras Portorriqueño
Dusky Nightjar Antrostomus saturatus Bergnachtschwalbe Chotacabras Fuliginosa
Band-winged Nightjar Systellura longirostris Spiegelnachtschwalbe Chotacabras Ñañarca
Palau Nightjar@ Caprimulgus phalaena Palaunachtschwalbe Chotacabras de Palau
Usambara Nightjar Caprimulgus guttifer Usambaranachtschwalbe Chotacabras del Usambara
Mexican Whip-poor-will Antrostomus arizonae Mexico-Nachtschwalbe Chotacabras Cuerporruín

Help with Searching

My work on birds is carried out in a huge database, where I can have all records open at once. However, converting details on over 10,000 species of birds at once into html is not possible, so the information in my database can be accessed via a search engine, or by going to a family group.

Here is some advice on searching. You may like to try the examples cited below to get experience with searching.

You can search on Scientific Name (for example, “Rallus longirostris”); or on English Name (for example, “Clapper Rail”); or on French Name “Râle gris”; or German Name (for example, “Klapperralle”); or Spanish Name (for example “Rascón Piquilargo”). You can search on only one of these at a time. If the search finds a unique match, it will display full details of the species. Note that some of the fields, which may contain large amounts of information, require you to click on a “Click to see full text” to view the information in a separate window.

If the search finds more than one match, it will display all species that match the search term. For example, if you type just “Rallus” against Scientific Name, the detail of all birds in the genus Rallus will be displayed. You are warned against typing a search term that will produce hundreds of records, such as “Flycatcher” under English Name, as the resulting list may overwhelm your computer’s memory.

If you enter a search term under English Synonym ( for example, “Little Cassowary”), if the search finds a unique match, it will display the details of the species to which this name relates (in this case “Dwarf Cassowary” Casuarius bennettii). If the search term finds more than one match among English Synonyms, it will display all species that have a match with the search term ( for example, try just “Cassowary”. This will list all species that have an English synonym that includes the word “Cassowary”.)

You can also search by Scientific Synonym. For example, if you type “Scolopax obscura”, the following record will be displayed:
Scolopax obscura S.G.Gmelin,1784,Reise durch Russland zur Untersuchung der drey Reiche,3,p.90,pl.17. (Shore of Caspian Sea). (= R.a.aquaticus)

The search may retrieve more than one record. For example, if you search for “Rallus gularis”, you will get both the following records:
Rallus gularis Horsfield,1821,Transactions of the Linnaean Society of London,13,pt.1,p.196.(Java.), which is the basis of Gallirallus striatus gularis; and
Rallus gularis Lesson(ex Cuvier MS),”1831”,Traité d'Ornithologie(1830),p.536. (Madagascar). Not Rallus gularis of Horsfield,1821. (= D.c.cuvieri), which is a synonym, though not available because it is pre-occupied, of Dryolimnas cuvieri cuvieri.

Of course if you use a single word as a search term, such as “Hypotaenidia”, your search will produce all synonyms containing this term.

You should be aware that I have reproduced exactly the name as it was cited by the original author. For example, Gallirallus was originally proposed by Lafresnaye,1841 as “Galli-rallus”. And the ligature “æ” was widely used before the twentieth century, as in “Anser cærulescens Bonnaterre,1790”.
I am in the process of going through my file and replacing all instances of spelling which deviate from the modern spelling with, for example, “Gallirallus [as Galli-rallus] Lafresnaye,1841”.
Another problem is that where a citation has abbreviated the name, the abbreviated portions of the name are reproduced in brackets. For example, in G. R. Gray, 1844-49, the genus was abbreviated to the first letter; thus we find C[achinna] herpetotheres.

If you enter a term under Generic Name, if a unique match is found, it should display a single record. For example, if you enter “Rallus”, the following will be displayed:
Rallus Linnaeus,1758,Systema Naturae....editio decima,tom.1,pars 1,p.153.Type,by subsequent designation (Fleming,1821,Memoirs of the Wernerian Natural History Society,3,p.176.),Rallus aquaticus Linnaeus,1758.

Note that this is case-sensitive, for example if you type Rallus, the citation for “Gallirallus” will not be displayed, nor that for “Laterallus”.

Since my checklist is extensively annotated, this search will also display any notes that apply to a generic name. For example, if you searched for “Lyrurus”, the following will be produced:
Lyrurus Swainson,”1831”,in Swainson & Richardson,Fauna Boreali-Americana,2(1832),p.497.Type,by original designation,Tetrao tetrix Linnaeus,1758.
Note!:Madge & McGowan,2002,Pheasants,Partridges and Grouse,p.368 resurrect Lyrurus as a genus:"Though often absorbed within Tetrao,the two species of black grouse form a distinctive pair...both Lyrurus have quite ornate,peculiarly twisted tails and
(ctd!) indulge in communal lekking, which differs considerably from the often solitary "popping" of forest-living capercaillies."

Searching for a Subgeneric name is similar. For example, if you enter “Tricholimnas”, you will get:
Tricholimnas Sharpe,1893,Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club,1,p.28.Type,by original designation,Tricholimnas lafresnayanus (Verreaux) = Gallirallus lafresnayanus J. Verreaux & Des Murs,1860.
And as is usual with subgeneric names, a following note:
Note>:Tricholimnas contains only G.lafresnayanus.

Finally, you can search on Generic or Subgeneric Synonym. If you type “Nesolimnas”, you will get:
Nesolimnas Andrews,1896,Novitates Zoologicae,3,pp.260,266.Type,by monotypy,Rallus dieffenbachii G.R.Gray,1843. (= Hypotaenidea)
The entry on brackets indicates that this is a synonym of the subgeneric name Hypotaenidea.

Note that such searches will not infrequently produce more than one result. This will include cases where a name was originally cited as a Nomen nudum (that is, no type species was designated), and later cited with a valid type species. It will also include cases of Homonyms, where the later name will be marked “Not….”.

If you have any further queries, please email jpenhall@bigpond.net.au