English Name Scientific Name German Name Spanish Name
Garganey Querquedula querquedula Knäkente Cerceta Carretona
Blue-winged Teal Spatula discors Blauflügelente Cerceta Aliazul
Cinnamon Teal Spatula cyanoptera Zimtente Cerceta Colorada
Red Shoveler Spatula platalea Fuchslöffelente Cuchara Argentino
Cape Shoveler Spatula smithii Kaplöffelente Cuchara del Cabo
Australasian Shoveler Spatula rhynchotis Halbmond-Löffelente Cuchara Australiano
Northern Shoveler Spatula clypeata Löffelente Cuchara Común
Mascarene Teal@+ Anas theodori
Cape Teal Anas capensis Fahlente Cerceta del Cabo
Andaman Teal Anas albogularis
Sunda Teal Anas gibberifrons Weißkehlente Cerceta Gris
Grey Teal Anas gracilis
Bernier's Teal@ Anas bernieri Bernierente Cerceta Malgache
Chestnut Teal@ Anas castanea Kastanienente Cerceta Castaña
Auckland Teal@ Anas aucklandica Aucklandente Cerceta Maorí
Campbell Teal@ Anas nesiotis
Brown Teal@ Anas chlorotis
Mallard Anas platyrhynchos Stockente Anade Azulón
Mottled Duck Anas fulvigula
Hawaiian Duck@ Anas wyvilliana
Laysan Duck@ Anas laysanensis Laysanente
American Black Duck Anas rubripes Dunkelente Anade Sombrío
Yellow-billed Duck Anas undulata Gelbschnabelente Anade Picolimon
Meller's Duck@ Anas melleri Madagaskarente Anade Malgache
Indian Spot-billed Duck Anas poecilorhyncha Fleckschnabelente Anade Picopinto
Eastern Spot-billed Duck Anas zonorhyncha
Pacific Black Duck Anas superciliosa Augenbrauenente Anade Cejudo
Philippine Duck@ Anas luzonica Philippinenente Anade Filipino
African Black Duck Anas sparsa Schwarzente Anade Negro
Northern Pintail Anas acuta Spießente Anade Rabudo
Kerguelen Pintail@ Anas eatoni
Yellow-billed Pintail Anas georgica Spitzschwanzente Anade Maicero
White-cheeked Pintail Anas bahamensis Bahamaente Anade Gargantillo
Red-billed Duck Anas erythrorhyncha Rotschnabelente Anade Piquirrojo
Puna Teal Punanetta puna
Silver Teal Punanetta versicolor Silberente Cerceta Capuchina
Hottentot Teal Punanetta hottentota Hottentottenente Cerceta Hotentote
Brazilian Teal Amazonetta brasiliensis Amazonasente Pato Brasilieño
Crested Duck Lophonetta specularioides Schopfente Anade Jarjual
Bronze-winged Duck Speculanas specularis Kupferspiegelente Anade Antteojillo
Salvadori's Teal@ Salvadorina waigiuensis Salvadoriente Anade Papúa
Eurasian Wigeon Anas penelope Pfeifente Silbón Europeo
American Wigeon Anas americana Nordamerikanische Pfeifente Silbón Americano
Chiloe Wigeon Anas sibilatrix Chilepfeifente Silbón Overo
Amsterdam Teal@+ Anas marecula
Falcated Duck Anas falcata Sichelente Cerceta de Alfanjes
Gadwall Anas strepera Schnatterente Anade Friso
Baikal Teal Sibirionetta formosa Gluckente Cerceta del Baikal
Eurasian Teal Anas crecca Krickente Cerceta Común
Green-winged Teal Anas carolinensis Amerikanische Krickente
Yellow-billed Teal Anas flavirostris Andenente Cerceta Barcina
Andean Teal Anas andium
Flightless Steamerduck Tachyeres pteneres Magellan-Dampfschiffente Patovapor del Magallanes
Chubut Steamerduck@ Tachyeres leucocephalus Weißkopf-Dampfschiffente Patovapor Cabeciblanco
Falkland Steamerduck@ Tachyeres brachypterus Falkland-Dampfschiffente Patovapor Malvinero
Flying Steamerduck Tachyeres patachonicus Langflügel-Dampschiffente Patovapor Volador

Help with Searching

My work on birds is carried out in a huge database, where I can have all records open at once. However, converting details on over 10,000 species of birds at once into html is not possible, so the information in my database can be accessed via a search engine, or by going to a family group.

Here is some advice on searching. You may like to try the examples cited below to get experience with searching.

You can search on Scientific Name (for example, “Rallus longirostris”); or on English Name (for example, “Clapper Rail”); or on French Name “Râle gris”; or German Name (for example, “Klapperralle”); or Spanish Name (for example “Rascón Piquilargo”). You can search on only one of these at a time. If the search finds a unique match, it will display full details of the species. Note that some of the fields, which may contain large amounts of information, require you to click on a “Click to see full text” to view the information in a separate window.

If the search finds more than one match, it will display all species that match the search term. For example, if you type just “Rallus” against Scientific Name, the detail of all birds in the genus Rallus will be displayed. You are warned against typing a search term that will produce hundreds of records, such as “Flycatcher” under English Name, as the resulting list may overwhelm your computer’s memory.

If you enter a search term under English Synonym ( for example, “Little Cassowary”), if the search finds a unique match, it will display the details of the species to which this name relates (in this case “Dwarf Cassowary” Casuarius bennettii). If the search term finds more than one match among English Synonyms, it will display all species that have a match with the search term ( for example, try just “Cassowary”. This will list all species that have an English synonym that includes the word “Cassowary”.)

You can also search by Scientific Synonym. For example, if you type “Scolopax obscura”, the following record will be displayed:
Scolopax obscura S.G.Gmelin,1784,Reise durch Russland zur Untersuchung der drey Reiche,3,p.90,pl.17. (Shore of Caspian Sea). (= R.a.aquaticus)

The search may retrieve more than one record. For example, if you search for “Rallus gularis”, you will get both the following records:
Rallus gularis Horsfield,1821,Transactions of the Linnaean Society of London,13,pt.1,p.196.(Java.), which is the basis of Gallirallus striatus gularis; and
Rallus gularis Lesson(ex Cuvier MS),”1831”,Traité d'Ornithologie(1830),p.536. (Madagascar). Not Rallus gularis of Horsfield,1821. (= D.c.cuvieri), which is a synonym, though not available because it is pre-occupied, of Dryolimnas cuvieri cuvieri.

Of course if you use a single word as a search term, such as “Hypotaenidia”, your search will produce all synonyms containing this term.

You should be aware that I have reproduced exactly the name as it was cited by the original author. For example, Gallirallus was originally proposed by Lafresnaye,1841 as “Galli-rallus”. And the ligature “æ” was widely used before the twentieth century, as in “Anser cærulescens Bonnaterre,1790”.
I am in the process of going through my file and replacing all instances of spelling which deviate from the modern spelling with, for example, “Gallirallus [as Galli-rallus] Lafresnaye,1841”.
Another problem is that where a citation has abbreviated the name, the abbreviated portions of the name are reproduced in brackets. For example, in G. R. Gray, 1844-49, the genus was abbreviated to the first letter; thus we find C[achinna] herpetotheres.

If you enter a term under Generic Name, if a unique match is found, it should display a single record. For example, if you enter “Rallus”, the following will be displayed:
Rallus Linnaeus,1758,Systema Naturae....editio decima,tom.1,pars 1,p.153.Type,by subsequent designation (Fleming,1821,Memoirs of the Wernerian Natural History Society,3,p.176.),Rallus aquaticus Linnaeus,1758.

Note that this is case-sensitive, for example if you type Rallus, the citation for “Gallirallus” will not be displayed, nor that for “Laterallus”.

Since my checklist is extensively annotated, this search will also display any notes that apply to a generic name. For example, if you searched for “Lyrurus”, the following will be produced:
Lyrurus Swainson,”1831”,in Swainson & Richardson,Fauna Boreali-Americana,2(1832),p.497.Type,by original designation,Tetrao tetrix Linnaeus,1758.
Note!:Madge & McGowan,2002,Pheasants,Partridges and Grouse,p.368 resurrect Lyrurus as a genus:"Though often absorbed within Tetrao,the two species of black grouse form a distinctive pair...both Lyrurus have quite ornate,peculiarly twisted tails and
(ctd!) indulge in communal lekking, which differs considerably from the often solitary "popping" of forest-living capercaillies."

Searching for a Subgeneric name is similar. For example, if you enter “Tricholimnas”, you will get:
Tricholimnas Sharpe,1893,Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club,1,p.28.Type,by original designation,Tricholimnas lafresnayanus (Verreaux) = Gallirallus lafresnayanus J. Verreaux & Des Murs,1860.
And as is usual with subgeneric names, a following note:
Note>:Tricholimnas contains only G.lafresnayanus.

Finally, you can search on Generic or Subgeneric Synonym. If you type “Nesolimnas”, you will get:
Nesolimnas Andrews,1896,Novitates Zoologicae,3,pp.260,266.Type,by monotypy,Rallus dieffenbachii G.R.Gray,1843. (= Hypotaenidea)
The entry on brackets indicates that this is a synonym of the subgeneric name Hypotaenidea.

Note that such searches will not infrequently produce more than one result. This will include cases where a name was originally cited as a Nomen nudum (that is, no type species was designated), and later cited with a valid type species. It will also include cases of Homonyms, where the later name will be marked “Not….”.

If you have any further queries, please email jpenhall@bigpond.net.au