English Name Scientific Name German Name Spanish Name
Mississippi Kite Ictinia mississippiensis Mississippiweih Elanio del Mississipí
Black-collared Hawk Busarellus nigricollis Fischbussard Busardo Colorado
Snail Kite Rostrhamus sociabilis Schneckenweih Caracolero Común
Slender-billed Kite Hemicolestes hamatus Hakenweih Caracolero Plomizo
Plumbeous Kite Ictinia plumbea Schwebeweih Elanio Plomizo
Grasshopper Buzzard Butastur rufipennis Heuschreckenteesa Busardo Langostero
Rufous-winged Buzzard Butastur liventer Malaienteesa Busardo Alirrufo
White-eyed Buzzard Butastur teesa Weißaugenteesa Busardo Tisa
Grey-faced Buzzard Butastur indicus Kiefernteesa Busardo Carigrís
Crane Hawk Geranospiza caerulescens Sperberweihe Azor Záncon
Slate-coloured Hawk Buteogallus schistaceus Schieferbussard Busardo Pizarroso
Plumbeous Hawk Cryptoleucopteryx plumbea Bleibussard Busardo Plomizo
Barred Hawk Morphnarchus princeps Prinzenbussard Busardo Azoreño
Black-faced Hawk Leucopternis melanops Zügelbussard Busardo Carinegro
White-browed Hawk Leucopternis kuhli Weißbrauenbussard Busardo Cejiblanco
White-necked Hawk@ Amadonastur lacernulatus Weißhalsbussard Busardo Cuelliblanco
Semiplumbeous Hawk Leucopternis semiplumbeus Möwenbussard Busardo Semiplombizo
White Hawk Pseudastur albicollis Schneebussard Busardo Blanco
Grey-backed Hawk Pseudastur occidentalis Graurückenbussard Busardo Dorsigrís
Mantled Hawk Pseudastur polionotus Mantelbussard Busardo Blanquinegro
Rufous Crab-Hawk Buteogallus aequinoctialis Rotbauchbussard Busardo-negro del Atlántico
Cuban Black-Hawk Buteogallus gundlachii
Common Black-Hawk Buteogallus anthracinus Krabbenbussard Busardo-negro Norteño
Great Black-Hawk Buteogallus urubitinga Schwarzbussard Busardo-negro Urubutinga
Savanna Hawk Buteogallus meridionalis Savanenbussard Busardo Sabanero
Harris's Hawk Parabuteo unicinctus Wüstenbussard Busardo Mixto
Montane Solitary Eagle Harpyhaliaetus solitarius Einseidleradler Aguila Solitaria
Crowned Solitary Eagle Harpyhaliaetus coronatus Zaunadler Aguila de Azara
Black-chested Buzzard-Eagle Geranoaetus melanoleucus Agula Aguila Mora
Roadside Hawk Rupornis magnirostris Wegebussard Busardo Caminero
White-rumped Hawk Parabuteo leucorrhous Weißbürzelbussard Busardo Culiblanco
Grey Hawk Asturina plagiata Zweibindenbussard Busardo Gris
Grey-lined Hawk Asturina nitida
Ridgway's Hawk Buteo ridgwayi Haitibussard Busardo de la Española
Red-shouldered Hawk Buteo lineatus Rotschulterbussard Busardo Hombrorrojo
Broad-winged Hawk Buteo platypterus Breitflügelbussard Busardo Aliancho
Short-tailed Hawk Buteo brachyurus Kurzschwanzbussard Busardo Colicorto
White-throated Hawk Buteo albigula Weißkehlbussard Busardo Gorgiblanco
Swainson's Hawk Buteo swainsoni Präriebussard Busardo Chapulinero
Galapagos Hawk@ Buteo galapagoensis Galapagosbussard Busardo de Galápagos
White-tailed Hawk Geranoaetus albicaudatus Weißschwanzbussard Busardo Coliblanco
Red-backed Hawk Geranoetus polyosoma Rotrückenbussard Busardo Dorsirrojo
Zone-tailed Hawk Buteo albonotatus Mohrenbussard Busardo Aura
Hawaiian Hawk@ Buteo solitarius Hawiibussard Busardo Hawaiano
Rufous-tailed Hawk Buteo ventralis Magellanbussard Busardo Patagón
Red-tailed Hawk Buteo jamaicensis Rotschwanzbussard Busardo Colirrojo
Eurasian Buzzard Buteo buteo Mäusebussard Busardo Ratonero
Eastern Buzzard Buteo japonicus
Mountain Buzzard Buteo oreophilus Bergbussard Busardo Montañés
Madagascar Buzzard@ Buteo brachypterus Madagaskarbussard Busardo Malgache
Long-legged Buzzard Buteo rufinus Adlerbussard Busardo Moro
Himalayan Buzzard Buteo burmanicus
Upland Buzzard Buteo hemilasius Mongolenbussard Busardo Mongol
Ferruginous Hawk Buteo regalis Königsbussard Busardo Herrumbroso
Rough-legged Buzzard Buteo lagopus Rauhfußbussard Busardo Calzado
Red-necked Buzzard Buteo auguralis Salvadoribussard Busardo Cuellirrojo
Archer's Buzzard@ Buteo archeri Archerbussard Busardo Augur Somalí
Augur Buzzard Buteo augur Augurbussard Busardo Augur Oriental
Jackal Buzzard Buteo rufofuscus Felsenbussard Busardo Augur Meridional
Socotra Buzzard@ Buteo socotraensis Sokotrabussard Busardo de Socotora

Help with Searching

My work on birds is carried out in a huge database, where I can have all records open at once. However, converting details on over 10,000 species of birds at once into html is not possible, so the information in my database can be accessed via a search engine, or by going to a family group.

Here is some advice on searching. You may like to try the examples cited below to get experience with searching.

You can search on Scientific Name (for example, “Rallus longirostris”); or on English Name (for example, “Clapper Rail”); or on French Name “Râle gris”; or German Name (for example, “Klapperralle”); or Spanish Name (for example “Rascón Piquilargo”). You can search on only one of these at a time. If the search finds a unique match, it will display full details of the species. Note that some of the fields, which may contain large amounts of information, require you to click on a “Click to see full text” to view the information in a separate window.

If the search finds more than one match, it will display all species that match the search term. For example, if you type just “Rallus” against Scientific Name, the detail of all birds in the genus Rallus will be displayed. You are warned against typing a search term that will produce hundreds of records, such as “Flycatcher” under English Name, as the resulting list may overwhelm your computer’s memory.

If you enter a search term under English Synonym ( for example, “Little Cassowary”), if the search finds a unique match, it will display the details of the species to which this name relates (in this case “Dwarf Cassowary” Casuarius bennettii). If the search term finds more than one match among English Synonyms, it will display all species that have a match with the search term ( for example, try just “Cassowary”. This will list all species that have an English synonym that includes the word “Cassowary”.)

You can also search by Scientific Synonym. For example, if you type “Scolopax obscura”, the following record will be displayed:
Scolopax obscura S.G.Gmelin,1784,Reise durch Russland zur Untersuchung der drey Reiche,3,p.90,pl.17. (Shore of Caspian Sea). (= R.a.aquaticus)

The search may retrieve more than one record. For example, if you search for “Rallus gularis”, you will get both the following records:
Rallus gularis Horsfield,1821,Transactions of the Linnaean Society of London,13,pt.1,p.196.(Java.), which is the basis of Gallirallus striatus gularis; and
Rallus gularis Lesson(ex Cuvier MS),”1831”,Traité d'Ornithologie(1830),p.536. (Madagascar). Not Rallus gularis of Horsfield,1821. (= D.c.cuvieri), which is a synonym, though not available because it is pre-occupied, of Dryolimnas cuvieri cuvieri.

Of course if you use a single word as a search term, such as “Hypotaenidia”, your search will produce all synonyms containing this term.

You should be aware that I have reproduced exactly the name as it was cited by the original author. For example, Gallirallus was originally proposed by Lafresnaye,1841 as “Galli-rallus”. And the ligature “æ” was widely used before the twentieth century, as in “Anser cærulescens Bonnaterre,1790”.
I am in the process of going through my file and replacing all instances of spelling which deviate from the modern spelling with, for example, “Gallirallus [as Galli-rallus] Lafresnaye,1841”.
Another problem is that where a citation has abbreviated the name, the abbreviated portions of the name are reproduced in brackets. For example, in G. R. Gray, 1844-49, the genus was abbreviated to the first letter; thus we find C[achinna] herpetotheres.

If you enter a term under Generic Name, if a unique match is found, it should display a single record. For example, if you enter “Rallus”, the following will be displayed:
Rallus Linnaeus,1758,Systema Naturae....editio decima,tom.1,pars 1,p.153.Type,by subsequent designation (Fleming,1821,Memoirs of the Wernerian Natural History Society,3,p.176.),Rallus aquaticus Linnaeus,1758.

Note that this is case-sensitive, for example if you type Rallus, the citation for “Gallirallus” will not be displayed, nor that for “Laterallus”.

Since my checklist is extensively annotated, this search will also display any notes that apply to a generic name. For example, if you searched for “Lyrurus”, the following will be produced:
Lyrurus Swainson,”1831”,in Swainson & Richardson,Fauna Boreali-Americana,2(1832),p.497.Type,by original designation,Tetrao tetrix Linnaeus,1758.
Note!:Madge & McGowan,2002,Pheasants,Partridges and Grouse,p.368 resurrect Lyrurus as a genus:"Though often absorbed within Tetrao,the two species of black grouse form a distinctive pair...both Lyrurus have quite ornate,peculiarly twisted tails and
(ctd!) indulge in communal lekking, which differs considerably from the often solitary "popping" of forest-living capercaillies."

Searching for a Subgeneric name is similar. For example, if you enter “Tricholimnas”, you will get:
Tricholimnas Sharpe,1893,Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club,1,p.28.Type,by original designation,Tricholimnas lafresnayanus (Verreaux) = Gallirallus lafresnayanus J. Verreaux & Des Murs,1860.
And as is usual with subgeneric names, a following note:
Note>:Tricholimnas contains only G.lafresnayanus.

Finally, you can search on Generic or Subgeneric Synonym. If you type “Nesolimnas”, you will get:
Nesolimnas Andrews,1896,Novitates Zoologicae,3,pp.260,266.Type,by monotypy,Rallus dieffenbachii G.R.Gray,1843. (= Hypotaenidea)
The entry on brackets indicates that this is a synonym of the subgeneric name Hypotaenidea.

Note that such searches will not infrequently produce more than one result. This will include cases where a name was originally cited as a Nomen nudum (that is, no type species was designated), and later cited with a valid type species. It will also include cases of Homonyms, where the later name will be marked “Not….”.

If you have any further queries, please email jpenhall@bigpond.net.au