English Name Scientific Name German Name Spanish Name
Thick-billed Lark Ramphocoris clotbey Knackerlerche Alondra de Pico Grueso
Calandra Lark Melanocorypha calandra Kalanderlerche Calandria Común
Bimaculated Lark Melanocorypha bimaculata Bergkalanderlerche Calandria Bimaculada
Tibetan Lark Melanocorypha maxima Sumpflerche
Mongolian Lark Melanocorypha mongolica Mongolenlerche
White-winged Lark Alauda leucoptera Weißflügellerche Calandria Aliblanca
Black Lark Melanocorypha yeltoniensis Mohrenlerche Calandria Negra
Greater Short-toed Lark Calandrella brachydactyla Kurzzehenlerche Terrera Común
Erlanger's Lark@ Calandrella erlangeri
Red-capped Lark Calandrella cinerea Rotkappenlerche
Blanford's Lark Calandrella blanfordi Blanfordlerche
Hume's Lark Calandrella acutirostris Tibetlerche
Indian Short-toed Lark Alaudula raytal Uferlerche
Lesser Short-toed Lark Alaudula rufescens Stummellerche Terrera Marismeña
Asian Short-toed Lark Alaudula cheleensis Salzlerche
Somali Short-toed Lark Calandrella somalica
Athi Short-toed Lark Alaudula athensis
Stark's Lark Spizocorys starki Falblerche
Dunn's Lark Eremalauda dunni Einödlerche Alondra de las Dunas
Pink-billed Lark Spizocorys conirostris Rotschnabellerche
Sclater's Lark Spizocorys sclateri Ammernlerche
Botha's Lark@ Spizocorys fringillaris Finkenlerche
Obbia Lark@ Spizocorys obbiensis Obbialerche
Masked Lark Spizocorys personata Maskenlerche
Dupont's Lark Chersophilus duponti Dupontlerche Alondra de Dupont
Short-tailed Lark Spizocrys fremantlii Bartlerche
Crested Lark Galerida cristata Haubenlerche Cogujada Común
Thekla Lark Galerida theklae Theklalerche Cogujada Montesina
Malabar Lark@ Galerida malabarica Malabarlerche
Syke's Lark@ Galerida deva Devalerche
Fawn-colored Lark Calendulalauda africanoides Steppenlerche
Foxy Lark Calendulalauda alopex
Red Lark@ Calendulauda burra
Karoo Lark Calendulauda albescens Karrulerche
Barlow's Lark@ Calendulauda barlowi
Dune Lark@ Calendulauda erythrochlamys Rotdünenlerche
Rufous-rumped Lark Pinarocorys erythropygia Rotbürzellerche
Dusky Lark Pinarocorys nigricans Drossellerche
Agulhas Long-billed Lark@ Certhilauda brevirostris
Eastern Long-billed Lark@ Certhilauda semitorquata
Karoo Long-billed Lark Certhilauda subcoronata
Benguela Long-billed Lark Certhilauda benguelensis
Short-clawed Lark Certhilauda chuana Betschuanalerche
Cave's Lark Certhilauda cavei
Long-billed Lark Certhilauda curvirostris Langschnabellerche
Spike-heeled Lark Chersomanes albofasciata Zirplerche Alondra Espolada
Beesley's Lark Chersomanes beesleyi Beesleylerche Alondra de Beesley
Black-eared Sparrow-Lark Eremopterix australis Schwarzwangenlerche
Chestnut-backed Sparrow-Lark Eremopterix leucotis Weißwangenlerche
Chestnut-headed Sparrow-Lark Eremopterix signatus Harlekinlerche
Grey-backed Sparrow-Lark Eremopterix verticalis Graurückenlerche
Black-crowned Sparrow-Lark Eremopterix nigriceps Weißstirnlerche Alondra Cabecinegra
Ashy-crowned Sparrow-Lark Eremopterix griseus Grauscheitellerche
Fischer's Sparrow-Lark Eremopterix leucopareia Braunscheitellerche
Bar-tailed Lark Ammomanes cincturus Sandlerche Terrera Colinegra
Rufous-tailed Lark Ammomanes phoenicurus Rotschwanzlerche
Desert Lark Ammomanes deserti Steinlerche Terrera Sahariana
Gray's Lark Ammomanopsis grayi Namiblerche
Greater Hoopoe-Lark Alaemon alaudipes Wüstenläuferlerche Sirli Desértico
Lesser Hoopoe-Lark@ Alaemon hamertoni Somaliläuferlerche
Madagascar Lark@ Eremopterix hova Hovalerche
Monotonous Lark Mirafra passerina Sperlingslerche
White-tailed Lark Mirafra albicauda Weißschwanzlerche
Latakoo Lark Mirafra cheniana Spottlerche
Kordofan Lark Mirafra cordofanica Kordofanlerche
Williams's Lark@ Mirafra williamsi Williamslerche
Friedmann's Lark Mirafra pulpa Friedmannlerche
Rufous-naped Lark Mirafra africana Rotnackenlerche
Red-winged Lark Mirafra hypermetra Riesenlerche
Somali Lark@ Mirafra somalica Somaliriesenlerche
Ash's Lark@ Mirafra ashi Ashlerche
Angola Lark Mirafra angolensis Angolalerche
Flappet Lark Mirafra rufocinnamomea Baumklapperlerche
Cape Clapper Lark Mirafra apiata Grasklapperlerche
Eastern Clapper Lark Mirafra fasciolata
Collared Lark Mirafra collaris Halsbandlerche
Bengal Bushlark Mirafra assamica Bengalenlerche
Jerdon's Bushlark Mirafra affinis
Burmese Bushlark Mirafra microptera
Indochinese Bushlark Mirafra erythrocephala
Rusty Lark Mirafra rufa Rostlerche
Gillett's Lark Mirafra gilletti Gillettlerche
Indian Bushlark Mirafra erythroptera Rotflügellerche
Archer's Lark@ Heteromirafra archeri Somalispornlerche
Sidamo Lark@ Heteromirafra sidamoensis Sidamospornlerche
Rudd's Lark@ Heteromirafra ruddi Spornlerche
Pink-breasted Lark Calendulauda poecilosterna Fahlbrustlerche
Sabota Lark Calendulauda sabota Sabotalerche
Singing BushLark Mirafra cantillans Buschlerche
Horsfield's Bushlark Mirafra javanica Horsfieldlerche
Sun Lark Galerida modesta Sonnenlerche
Large-billed Lark Galerida magnirostris Dickschnabellerche
Wood Lark Lullula arborea Heidelerche Totovía
Sky Lark Alauda arvensis Feldlerche Alondra Común
Oriental Skylark Alauda gulgula Kleine Feldlerche Alondra India
Raso Lark@ Alauda razae Razolerche Terrera de Cabo Verde
Horned Lark Eremophila alpestris Ohrenlerche Alondra Cornuda
Temminck's Lark Eremophila bilopha Saharaohrenlerche Alondra Cornuda de Temminck

Help with Searching

My work on birds is carried out in a huge database, where I can have all records open at once. However, converting details on over 10,000 species of birds at once into html is not possible, so the information in my database can be accessed via a search engine, or by going to a family group.

Here is some advice on searching. You may like to try the examples cited below to get experience with searching.

You can search on Scientific Name (for example, “Rallus longirostris”); or on English Name (for example, “Clapper Rail”); or on French Name “Râle gris”; or German Name (for example, “Klapperralle”); or Spanish Name (for example “Rascón Piquilargo”). You can search on only one of these at a time. If the search finds a unique match, it will display full details of the species. Note that some of the fields, which may contain large amounts of information, require you to click on a “Click to see full text” to view the information in a separate window.

If the search finds more than one match, it will display all species that match the search term. For example, if you type just “Rallus” against Scientific Name, the detail of all birds in the genus Rallus will be displayed. You are warned against typing a search term that will produce hundreds of records, such as “Flycatcher” under English Name, as the resulting list may overwhelm your computer’s memory.

If you enter a search term under English Synonym ( for example, “Little Cassowary”), if the search finds a unique match, it will display the details of the species to which this name relates (in this case “Dwarf Cassowary” Casuarius bennettii). If the search term finds more than one match among English Synonyms, it will display all species that have a match with the search term ( for example, try just “Cassowary”. This will list all species that have an English synonym that includes the word “Cassowary”.)

You can also search by Scientific Synonym. For example, if you type “Scolopax obscura”, the following record will be displayed:
Scolopax obscura S.G.Gmelin,1784,Reise durch Russland zur Untersuchung der drey Reiche,3,p.90,pl.17. (Shore of Caspian Sea). (= R.a.aquaticus)

The search may retrieve more than one record. For example, if you search for “Rallus gularis”, you will get both the following records:
Rallus gularis Horsfield,1821,Transactions of the Linnaean Society of London,13,pt.1,p.196.(Java.), which is the basis of Gallirallus striatus gularis; and
Rallus gularis Lesson(ex Cuvier MS),”1831”,Traité d'Ornithologie(1830),p.536. (Madagascar). Not Rallus gularis of Horsfield,1821. (= D.c.cuvieri), which is a synonym, though not available because it is pre-occupied, of Dryolimnas cuvieri cuvieri.

Of course if you use a single word as a search term, such as “Hypotaenidia”, your search will produce all synonyms containing this term.

You should be aware that I have reproduced exactly the name as it was cited by the original author. For example, Gallirallus was originally proposed by Lafresnaye,1841 as “Galli-rallus”. And the ligature “æ” was widely used before the twentieth century, as in “Anser cærulescens Bonnaterre,1790”.
I am in the process of going through my file and replacing all instances of spelling which deviate from the modern spelling with, for example, “Gallirallus [as Galli-rallus] Lafresnaye,1841”.
Another problem is that where a citation has abbreviated the name, the abbreviated portions of the name are reproduced in brackets. For example, in G. R. Gray, 1844-49, the genus was abbreviated to the first letter; thus we find C[achinna] herpetotheres.

If you enter a term under Generic Name, if a unique match is found, it should display a single record. For example, if you enter “Rallus”, the following will be displayed:
Rallus Linnaeus,1758,Systema Naturae....editio decima,tom.1,pars 1,p.153.Type,by subsequent designation (Fleming,1821,Memoirs of the Wernerian Natural History Society,3,p.176.),Rallus aquaticus Linnaeus,1758.

Note that this is case-sensitive, for example if you type Rallus, the citation for “Gallirallus” will not be displayed, nor that for “Laterallus”.

Since my checklist is extensively annotated, this search will also display any notes that apply to a generic name. For example, if you searched for “Lyrurus”, the following will be produced:
Lyrurus Swainson,”1831”,in Swainson & Richardson,Fauna Boreali-Americana,2(1832),p.497.Type,by original designation,Tetrao tetrix Linnaeus,1758.
Note!:Madge & McGowan,2002,Pheasants,Partridges and Grouse,p.368 resurrect Lyrurus as a genus:"Though often absorbed within Tetrao,the two species of black grouse form a distinctive pair...both Lyrurus have quite ornate,peculiarly twisted tails and
(ctd!) indulge in communal lekking, which differs considerably from the often solitary "popping" of forest-living capercaillies."

Searching for a Subgeneric name is similar. For example, if you enter “Tricholimnas”, you will get:
Tricholimnas Sharpe,1893,Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club,1,p.28.Type,by original designation,Tricholimnas lafresnayanus (Verreaux) = Gallirallus lafresnayanus J. Verreaux & Des Murs,1860.
And as is usual with subgeneric names, a following note:
Note>:Tricholimnas contains only G.lafresnayanus.

Finally, you can search on Generic or Subgeneric Synonym. If you type “Nesolimnas”, you will get:
Nesolimnas Andrews,1896,Novitates Zoologicae,3,pp.260,266.Type,by monotypy,Rallus dieffenbachii G.R.Gray,1843. (= Hypotaenidea)
The entry on brackets indicates that this is a synonym of the subgeneric name Hypotaenidea.

Note that such searches will not infrequently produce more than one result. This will include cases where a name was originally cited as a Nomen nudum (that is, no type species was designated), and later cited with a valid type species. It will also include cases of Homonyms, where the later name will be marked “Not….”.

If you have any further queries, please email jpenhall@bigpond.net.au