English Name Scientific Name German Name Spanish Name
Brown Nunlet Nonnula brunnea Einfarb-Faulvogel Monjilla Canela
Grey-cheeked Nunlet Nonnula frontalis Grauwangen-Faulvogel Monjilla Carigrís
Rufous-capped Nunlet Nonnula ruficapilla Rotscheitel-Faulvogel Monjilla Coronada
Chestnut-headed Nunlet@ Nonnula amaurocephala Rotkopf-Faulvogel Monjilla Cabeciparda
White-faced Nunbird Hapaloptila castanea Diademfaulvogel Buco Cariblanco
Black Nunbird Monasa atra Mohrentrappist Monja negra
Black-fronted Nunbird Monasa nigrifrons Schwarzstirntrappist Monja Unicolor
White-fronted Nunbird Monasa morphoeus Weißstirntrappist Monja Frentiblanco
Yellow-billed Nunbird Monasa flavirostris Gelbschnabeltrappist Monja Piquigualda
Swallow-winged Puffbird Chelidoptera tenebrosa Schwalbenfaulvogel Buco Golondrina
Guianan Puffbird Notharchus macrorhynchos Weißhals-Faulvogel Buco Picogordo
Buff-bellied Puffbird Notharchus swainsoni Swainson-Faulvogel Buco de Swainson
Black-breasted Puffbird Notharchus pectoralis Gürtelfaulvogel Buco Pechinegro
Brown-banded Puffbird Notharchus ordii Braunbinden-Faulvogel Buco Pechipardo
Pied Puffbird Notharchus tectus Elsterfaulvogel Buco Pío
Chestnut-capped Puffbird Cyphos macrodactylus Braunkappen-Faulvogel Buco Cabecirrojo
Spotted Puffbird Nystactes tamatia Fleckenfaulvogel Buco Moteado
Sooty-capped Puffbird@ Nystactes noanamae Rußkappen-Faulvogel Buco de Noanamá
Collared Puffbird Bucco capensis Halsband-Faulvogel Buco Musiú
Barred Puffbird Nystalus radiatus Grünschnabel-Faulvogel Buco Barrado
White-eared Puffbird Nystalus chacuru Weißohr-Faulvogel Buco Chacurú
Natterer's Striolated Puffbird@ Nystalus striolatus Strichelfaulvogel Buco Estriado
Caatinga Puffbird Nystalus maculatus Fleckmantel-Faulvogel Buco Durmilí
Russet-throated Puffbird Hypnelus ruficollis Rostkehl-Faulvogel Buco Bobito
Two-banded Puffbird Hypnelus bicinctus Doppelband-Faulvogel Buco Bicinto
Crescent-chested Puffbird@ Malacoptila striata Halbmond-Faulvogel Buco rayado
White-chested Puffbird Malacoptila fusca Weißbrust-Faulvogel Buco Pechiblanco
Semicollared Puffbird Malacoptila semicincta Halbring-Faulvogel Buco Mediocollar
Black-streaked Puffbird Malacoptila fulvogularis Ockerkehl-Faulvogel Buco Listado
Rufous-necked Puffbird Malacoptila rufa Goldstirn-Faulvogel Buco Cuelirrojo
White-whiskered Puffbird Malacoptila panamensis Weißzügel-Faulvogel Buco Barbón
Moustached Puffbird Malacoptila mystacalis Schnurrbart-Faulvogel Buco Bigotudo
Lanceolated Monklet Micromonarcha lanceolata Streifenfaulvogel Monjilla Lanceolada
Rusty-breasted Nunlet Nonnula rubecula Rotkehl-Faulvogel Monjilla Macurú
Fulvous-chinned Nunlet Nonnula sclateri Gelbkinn-Faulvogel Monjilla de Sclater
Western Striolated Puffbird Nystalus obamai Obama-Strichelfaulvogel Buco Estriado de Obama
Eastern Striolated Puffbird@ Nystalus torridus Para-Strichelfaulvogel Buco Estriado de Para
Chaco Puffbird Nystalus striatipectus

Help with Searching

My work on birds is carried out in a huge database, where I can have all records open at once. However, converting details on over 10,000 species of birds at once into html is not possible, so the information in my database can be accessed via a search engine, or by going to a family group.

Here is some advice on searching. You may like to try the examples cited below to get experience with searching.

You can search on Scientific Name (for example, “Rallus longirostris”); or on English Name (for example, “Clapper Rail”); or on French Name “Râle gris”; or German Name (for example, “Klapperralle”); or Spanish Name (for example “Rascón Piquilargo”). You can search on only one of these at a time. If the search finds a unique match, it will display full details of the species. Note that some of the fields, which may contain large amounts of information, require you to click on a “Click to see full text” to view the information in a separate window.

If the search finds more than one match, it will display all species that match the search term. For example, if you type just “Rallus” against Scientific Name, the detail of all birds in the genus Rallus will be displayed. You are warned against typing a search term that will produce hundreds of records, such as “Flycatcher” under English Name, as the resulting list may overwhelm your computer’s memory.

If you enter a search term under English Synonym ( for example, “Little Cassowary”), if the search finds a unique match, it will display the details of the species to which this name relates (in this case “Dwarf Cassowary” Casuarius bennettii). If the search term finds more than one match among English Synonyms, it will display all species that have a match with the search term ( for example, try just “Cassowary”. This will list all species that have an English synonym that includes the word “Cassowary”.)

You can also search by Scientific Synonym. For example, if you type “Scolopax obscura”, the following record will be displayed:
Scolopax obscura S.G.Gmelin,1784,Reise durch Russland zur Untersuchung der drey Reiche,3,p.90,pl.17. (Shore of Caspian Sea). (= R.a.aquaticus)

The search may retrieve more than one record. For example, if you search for “Rallus gularis”, you will get both the following records:
Rallus gularis Horsfield,1821,Transactions of the Linnaean Society of London,13,pt.1,p.196.(Java.), which is the basis of Gallirallus striatus gularis; and
Rallus gularis Lesson(ex Cuvier MS),”1831”,Traité d'Ornithologie(1830),p.536. (Madagascar). Not Rallus gularis of Horsfield,1821. (= D.c.cuvieri), which is a synonym, though not available because it is pre-occupied, of Dryolimnas cuvieri cuvieri.

Of course if you use a single word as a search term, such as “Hypotaenidia”, your search will produce all synonyms containing this term.

You should be aware that I have reproduced exactly the name as it was cited by the original author. For example, Gallirallus was originally proposed by Lafresnaye,1841 as “Galli-rallus”. And the ligature “æ” was widely used before the twentieth century, as in “Anser cærulescens Bonnaterre,1790”.
I am in the process of going through my file and replacing all instances of spelling which deviate from the modern spelling with, for example, “Gallirallus [as Galli-rallus] Lafresnaye,1841”.
Another problem is that where a citation has abbreviated the name, the abbreviated portions of the name are reproduced in brackets. For example, in G. R. Gray, 1844-49, the genus was abbreviated to the first letter; thus we find C[achinna] herpetotheres.

If you enter a term under Generic Name, if a unique match is found, it should display a single record. For example, if you enter “Rallus”, the following will be displayed:
Rallus Linnaeus,1758,Systema Naturae....editio decima,tom.1,pars 1,p.153.Type,by subsequent designation (Fleming,1821,Memoirs of the Wernerian Natural History Society,3,p.176.),Rallus aquaticus Linnaeus,1758.

Note that this is case-sensitive, for example if you type Rallus, the citation for “Gallirallus” will not be displayed, nor that for “Laterallus”.

Since my checklist is extensively annotated, this search will also display any notes that apply to a generic name. For example, if you searched for “Lyrurus”, the following will be produced:
Lyrurus Swainson,”1831”,in Swainson & Richardson,Fauna Boreali-Americana,2(1832),p.497.Type,by original designation,Tetrao tetrix Linnaeus,1758.
Note!:Madge & McGowan,2002,Pheasants,Partridges and Grouse,p.368 resurrect Lyrurus as a genus:"Though often absorbed within Tetrao,the two species of black grouse form a distinctive pair...both Lyrurus have quite ornate,peculiarly twisted tails and
(ctd!) indulge in communal lekking, which differs considerably from the often solitary "popping" of forest-living capercaillies."

Searching for a Subgeneric name is similar. For example, if you enter “Tricholimnas”, you will get:
Tricholimnas Sharpe,1893,Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club,1,p.28.Type,by original designation,Tricholimnas lafresnayanus (Verreaux) = Gallirallus lafresnayanus J. Verreaux & Des Murs,1860.
And as is usual with subgeneric names, a following note:
Note>:Tricholimnas contains only G.lafresnayanus.

Finally, you can search on Generic or Subgeneric Synonym. If you type “Nesolimnas”, you will get:
Nesolimnas Andrews,1896,Novitates Zoologicae,3,pp.260,266.Type,by monotypy,Rallus dieffenbachii G.R.Gray,1843. (= Hypotaenidea)
The entry on brackets indicates that this is a synonym of the subgeneric name Hypotaenidea.

Note that such searches will not infrequently produce more than one result. This will include cases where a name was originally cited as a Nomen nudum (that is, no type species was designated), and later cited with a valid type species. It will also include cases of Homonyms, where the later name will be marked “Not….”.

If you have any further queries, please email jpenhall@bigpond.net.au