English Name Scientific Name German Name Spanish Name
Parrot-billed Seedeater Sporophila peruviana Papageienschnabelpfäffchen
Drab Seedeater@ Sporophila simplex Dickschnabelpfäffchen
Black-and-tawny Seedeater Sporophila nigrorufa Schwarzmantelpfäffchen
Capped Seedeater Sporophila bouvreuil Orangepfäffchen Semillero Capinegro
Tumaco Seedeater@ Sporophila insulata Tumacopfäffchen
Ruddy-breasted Seedeater Sporophila minuta Zwergpfäffchen
Tawny-bellied Seedeater Sporophila hypoxantha Ockerbrustpfäffchen
Grey-and-chestnut Seedeater Sporophila hypochroma Rotbürzelpfäffchen
Dark-throated Seedeater Sporophila ruficollis Schwarzkehlpfäffchen
Marsh Seedeater Sporophila palustris Sumpfpfäffchen
Chestnut-bellied Seedeater Sporophila castaneiventris Rotbauchpfäffchen
Chestnut Seedeater Sporophila cinnamomea Zimtpfäffchen
Black-bellied Seedeater@ Sporophila melanogaster Schwarzbauchpfäffchen
Chestnut-throated Seedeater Sporophila telasco Braunkehlpfäffchen
Nicaraguan Seedfinch Oryzoborus nuttingi Nicaraguareisknacker
Large-billed Seed-Finch Oryzoborus crassirostris Mohrenreisknacker
Great-billed Seed-Finch Oryzoborus maximiliani Dickschnabel-Reisknacker
Black-billed Seed-Finch Oryzoborus atrirostris Schwarzschnabel-Reisknacker
Chestnut-bellied Seed-Finch Oryzoborus angolensis Schwarzkopf-Reisknacker
Thick-billed Seed-Finch Oryzoborus funereus Schwarzkopf-Reisknacker
Blue Seedeater Cyanoloxia concolor Indigopfäffchen
Slate-Blue Seedeater@ Cyanoloxia relicta
Blackish-blue Seedeater Cyanoloxia moesta Weißachselpfäffchen
Carrizal Seedeater@ Cyanoloxia carrizalensis
Greater Antillean Bullfinch Melopyrrha violacea Schwarzgimpelfink
White-naped Seedeater Dolospingus fringilloides Weißnackenpfäffchen
Band-tailed Seedeater Catamenia analis Spiegelcatamenie
Plain-colored Seedeater Catamenia inornata Schlichtcatamenie
Paramo Seedeater Catamenia homochroa Schlankschnabelcatamenie
Dull-colored Grassquit "Loxigilla" obscura Braunpfäffchen
Saffron Finch Sicalis flaveola Safranammer
Grassland Yellow-Finch Sicalis luteola Kurzschnabel-Gilbammer
Misto Yellow-Finch Sicalis luteiventris
Raimondi's Yellow-Finch@ Sicalis raimondii Grauflanken-Gilbammer
Sulphur-throated Finch Sicalis taczanowskii Taczanowskigilbammer
Wedge-tailed Grass-Finch Emberizoides herbicola Keilschwanzammer
Duida Grass-Finch@ Emberizoides duidae Duidaammer
Grey-cheeked Grass-Finch Emberizoides ypiranganus Ypirangaammer
Great Pampa-Finch Embernagra platensis Pampaammer
Pale-throated Pampa-Finch@ Embernagra longicauda Langschwanzammer
Blue-black Grassquit Volatinia jacarina Jacariniammer
Buffy-fronted Seedeater Sporophila frontalis Riesenpfäffchen
Temminck's Seedeater@ Sporophila falcirostris Falzschnabelpfäffchen
Slate-colored Seedeater Sporophila schistacea Schiefferpfäffchen
Grey Seedeater Sporophila intermedia Einfarbpfäffchen
Plumbeous Seedeater Sporophila plumbea Graupfäffchen
Variable Seedeater Sporophila corvina
Wing-barred Seedeater Sporophila americana Wechselpfäffchen
Caqueta Seedeater Sporophila murallae
White-collared Seedeater Sporophila torqueola Braunbürzelpfäffchen
Rusty-collared Seedeater Sporophila collaris Erzpfäffchen
Lesson's Seedeater Sporophila bouvronides Diamantpfäffchen
Lined Seedeater Sporophila lineola Diamantpfäffchen
Black-and-white Seedeater Sporophila luctuosa Trauerpfäffchen
Yellow-bellied Seedeater Sporophila nigricollis Gelbbauchpfäffchen
Dubois's Seedeater@ Sporophila ardesiaca Duboispfäffchen
Hooded Seedeater@ Sporophila melanops Kapuzenpfäffchen
Double-collared Seedeater Sporophila caerulescens Schmuckpfäffchen
White-throated Seedeater@ Sporophila albogularis Weißkehlpfäffchen
White-bellied Seedeater Sporophila leucoptera Zweifarbenpfäffchen
Cuban Grassquit@ Phonipara canora Kubafink
Yellow-faced Grassquit Tiaris olivaceus Goldbraue
Black-faced Grassquit Melanospiza bicolor Schwartzgesichtchen
Sooty Grassquit Loxigilla fuliginosa Scharzbrüstchen
Yellow-shouldered Grassquit@ Loxipasser anoxanthus Goldbug-Gimpelfink
Cuban Bullfinch Melopyrrha nigra Rotkopf-Gimpelfink
Puerto Rican Bullfinch Melopyrrha portoricensis Rotsteiß-Gimpelfink
Lesser Antillean Bullfinch Loxigilla noctis Bartgimpelfink
Bardabos Bullfinch@ Loxigilla barbadensis
St Lucia Black Finch@ Melanospiza richardsoni Blaßfuß-Gimpelfink
Large Ground-Finch@ Geospiza magnirostris Großgrundfink
Medium Ground-Finch@ Geospiza fortis Mittelgrundfink
Small Ground-Finch@ Geospiza fuliginosa Kleingrundfink Pinzón de Darwin Fuliginosa
Sharp-beaked Ground-Finch@ Geospiza difficilis Spitzschnabel-Grundfink Pinzón de Darwin Picofino
Common Cactus-Finch@ Geospiza scandens Kaktusgrundfink
Large Cactus-Finch@ Geospiza conirostris Opuntiengrundfink
Vegetarian Finch@ Platyspiza crassirostris Dickschnabel-Darwinfink
Large Tree-Finch@ Camarhynchus psittacula Papageischnabel-Darwinfink Pinzón de Darwin Lorito
Medium Tree-Finch@ Camarhynchus pauper Kleinschnabel-Darwinfink
Small Tree-Finch@ Camarhynchus parvulus Zwergdarwinfink Pinzón de Darwin Chico
Woodpecker Finch@ Camarhynchus pallidus Spechtfink
Mangrove Finch@ Camarhynchus heliobates Mangrovedarwinfink
Green Warbler-Finch@ Certhidea olivacea Waldsänger-Darwinfink Pinzón de Darwin Oliváceo
Cocos Finch@ Pinaroloxias inornata Kokosfink Pinzón de Darwin de la Cocos
Green-tailed Towhee@ Pipilo chlorurus Grünschwanz-Grundammer Toqui Coliverde
Collared Towhee@ Pipilo ocai Halsband-Grundammer Toqui Acolorado
Eastern Towhee Pipilo erythrophthalmus Rötelgrundammer
Spotted Towhee Pipilo maculatus
California Towhee Kieneria crissalis
Canyon Towhee Kieneria fusca Braunrücken-Grundammer
Rufous-backed Inca-Finch@ Incaspiza personata Schwarzstirnammer
Grey-winged Inca-Finch@ Incaspiza ortizi Grauflügelammer
Buff-bridled Inca-Finch@ Incaspiza laeta Goldschnabelammer
Little Inca-Finch@ Incaspiza watkinsi Watkinsammer
Bay-chested Warbling-Finch@ Paranospiza thoracica Maronenbrust-Ammerfink
Sao Paulo Warbling-Finch@ Poospiza sp.nov
Bolivian Warbling-Finch@ Poospiza boliviana Zimtbrust-Ammerfink
Plain-tailed Warbling-Finch@ Microspingus alticola Grauschwanz-Ammerfink
Rufous-sided Warbling-Finch Poospiza hypocondria Rotflanken-Ammerfink
Rusty-browed Warbling-Finch Microspingus erythrophrys Rostbrauen-Ammerfink
Cinnamon Warbling-Finch@ Poospiza ornata Schmuckammerfink
Black-and-rufous Warbling-Finch Poospiza nigrorufa Rotbrust-Ammerfink
Black-and-chestnut Warbling-Finch Poospiza whitii
Buff-throated Warbling-Finch@ Microspingus lateralis Rotbürzel-Ammerfink Monterita Culirrufa
Rufous-breasted Warbling-Finch@ Poospiza rubecula Rostbauch-Ammerfink
Cochabamba Mountain-Finch@ Poospiza garleppi Garleppammerfink
Tucuman Mountain-Finch Poospiza baeri Baerammerfink
Chestnut-breasted Mountain-Finch@ Poospizopsis caesar Kaiserammerfink
Collared Warbling-Finch Poospiza hispaniolensis Schwarzbrust-Ammerfink
Ringed Warbling-Finch Microspingus torquatus Bandammerfink
Black-capped Warbling-Finch Microspingus melanoleucus
Cinereous Warbling-Finch@ Microspingus cinereus Schwarzwangen-Ammerfink
Stripe-tailed Yellow-Finch Sicalis citrina Zitronengilbammer
Puna Yellow-Finch Sicalis lutea Punasafranammer
Bright-rumped Yellow-Finch Sicalis uropygialis Goldbürzel-Gilbammer
Citron-headed Yellow-Finch@ Sicalis luteocephala Graunacken-Gilbammer
Greater Yellow-Finch Sicalis auriventris Goldbauch-Gilbammer
Greenish Yellow-Finch Sicalis olivascens Olivbrust-Gilbammer
Patagonian Yellow-Finch Sicalis lebruni Magellangilbammer
Orange-fronted Yellow-Finch Sicalis columbiana Zwergsafranammer
Zapata Sparrow@ Torreornis inexpectata Zapataammer
Striped Sparrow@ Oriturus superciliosus Streifenammer
Peruvian Sierra-Finch Phrygilus punensis
Black-hooded Sierra-Finch Phrygilus atriceps Kapuzenämmerling
Grey-hooded Sierra-Finch Phrygilus gayi Kordillerenämmerling
Patagonian Sierra-Finch Phrygilus patagonicus Magellanämmerling
Mourning Sierra-Finch Rhopospina fruticeti Strauchämmerling
Plumbeous Sierra-Finch Geospizopsis unicolor Bleiämmerling
Red-backed Sierra-Finch Diuca dorsalis Braunmantelämmerling
White-throated Sierra-Finch Diuca erythronota Weißkehlämmerling
Ash-breasted Sierra-Finch Geospizopsis plebejus Aschbrustämmerling
Carbonated Sierra-Finch@ Phrygilus carbonarius Schwarzbrustämmerling
Band-tailed Sierra-Finch Phrygilus alaudinus Schwarzfleckenämmerling
Canary-winged Finch Melanodera melanodera Schwarzkehl-Ammerfink
Yellow-bridled Finch Melanodera xanthogramma Zügelammerfink
Slaty Finch Haplospiza rustica Schieferämmerling
Uniform Finch Haplospiza unicolor Einfarbämmerling
Peg-billed Finch Haplospiza bairdii Spitzschnabelämmerling
Black-crested Finch Lophospingus pusillus Schwarzhauben-Zwergkardinal
Grey-crested Finch Lophospingus griseocristatus Grauhauben-Zwergkardinal
Long-tailed Reed-Finch Donacospiza albifrons Riedammerfink
Gough Finch@ Rowettia goughensis Goughammerfink
Nightingale Finch@ Nesospiza acunhae Tristanammerfink Yal de la Inaccessible
Wilkins's Finch@ Nesospiza wilkinsi Wilkinsammerfink Yal de Wilkins
White-winged Diuca-Finch Diuca speculifera Spiegeldiuca
Common Diuca-Finch Hedyglossa diuca Braunsteißdiuca
Short-tailed Finch Diuca brachyura Kurzschwanzdiuca
Cinereous Finch@ Piezorhina cinerea Grauämmerling
Slender-billed Finch Xenospingus concolor Feinschnabelämmerling
Great Inca-Finch@ Incaspiza pulchra Inkaammer
Henslow's Sparrow Centronyx henslowii Henslowammer
Grasshopper Sparrow Ammodramus savannarum Heuschreckenammer
Grassland Sparrow Ammodramus humeralis Wachtelammer
Yellow-browed Sparrow Ammodramus aurifrons Gelbwangsammer
Sierra Madre Sparrow@ Xenospiza baileyi Sierraammer
American Tree Sparrow Passerella arborea Baumammer
Chipping Sparrow Spizella passerina Schwirrammer
Field Sparrow Spizella pusilla Klapperammer
Worthen's Sparrow@ Spizella wortheni Mexikoammer
Black-chinned Sparrow Spizella atrogularis Schwarzkinnammer
Clay-colored Sparrow Spizella pallida Fahlammer
Brewer's Sparrow Spizella breweri Nevadaammer
Vesper Sparrow Pooecetes gramineus Abendammer
Lark Sparrow Chondestes grammacus Rainammer
Black-throated Sparrow Amphispiza bilineata Schwarzkehlammer
Bell's Sparrow Artemiospiza belli Beifußammer
Five-striped Sparrow Amphispiza quinquestriata Fünfstreifenammer
Bridled Sparrow@ Peucea mystacalis Zügelammer
Black-chested Sparrow@ Peucea humeralis Schwarzbrustammer
Stripe-headed Sparrow Peucea ruficauda Rotschwanzammer
Cinnamon-tailed Sparrow@ Peucea sumichrasti Zimtschwanzammer
Tumbes Sparrow Rhynchospiza stolzmanni Stolzmannammer
Stripe-capped Sparrow Rhynchospiza strigiceps Dabbeneammer
Bachman's Sparrow@ Peucea aestivalis Bachmanammer
Botteri's Sparrow Peucea botterii Botteriammer
Cassin's Sparrow Peucaea cassinii Cassinammer
Rufous-winged Sparrow Peucaea carpalis Rostflügelammer
Rufous-crowned Sparrow Aimophila ruficeps Rostscheitelammer
Oaxaca Sparrow@ Aimophila notosticta Oaxacaammer
Rusty Sparrow Aimophila rufescens Rostrückenammer
Pallas's Bunting Emberiza pallasi Pallasammer
Reed Bunting Emberiza schoeniclus Rohrammer
McCown's Longspur Rhynchophanes mccownii McCownspornammer
Lapland Longspur Calcarius lapponicus Spornammer
Smith's Longspur Calcarius pictus Smithspornammer
Chestnut-collared Longspur Calcarius ornatus Gelbkehl-Spornammer
Snow Bunting Plectrophenax nivalis Schneeammer
McKay's Bunting@ Plectrophenax hyperboreus Beringschneeammer
Lark Bunting Calamospiza melanocorys Prärieammer
Fox Sparrow Passerella iliaca Fuchsammer
Song Sparrow Melospiza melodia Singammer
Lincoln's Sparrow Melospiza lincolnii Lincolnammer
Swamp Sparrow Melospiza georgiana Sumpfammer
Rufous-collared Sparrow Zonotrichia capensis Morgenammer
White-throated Sparrow Zonotrichia albicollis Weißkehlammer
Harris's Sparrow Zonotrichia querula Harrisammer
White-crowned Sparrow Zonotrichia leucophrys Dachsammer
Golden-crowned Sparrow Zonotrichia atricapilla Kronenammer
Volcano Junco Junco vulcani Streifenjunko
Dark-eyed Junco Junco hyemalis Junko
Guadalupe Junco@ Junco insularis Guadelupejunco
Yellow-eyed Junco Junco phaeonotus Rotrückenjunko
Baird's Junco@ Junco bairdi
Savannah Sparrow Passerculus sandwichensis Grasammer
Large-billed Sparrow Passerculus rostratus
Seaside Sparrow@ Ammospiza maritima Strandammer
Saltmarsh Sharp-tailed Sparrow@ Ammospiza caudacuta Spitzschwanzammer
Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrow Ammospiza nelsoni
Le Conte's Sparrow Ammospiza leconteii Le-Conte-Ammer
Baird's Sparrow Centronyx bairdii Bairdammer
Grey-necked Bunting Emberiza buchanani Steinortolan
Chestnut-breasted Bunting Emberiza stewarti Siblerkopfammer
Cinereous Bunting Emberiza cineracea Türkenammer
Ortolan Bunting Emberiza hortulana Ortolan
Cretzschmar's Bunting Emberiza caesia Grauortolan
Cirl Bunting Emberiza cirlus Zaunammer
Striolated Bunting Emberiza striolata Wüstenammer Bruant striolé
Lark-like Bunting Emberiza impetuani Lerchenammer
Cinnamon-breasted Bunting Emberiza tahapisi Bergammer
Socotra Bunting@ Emberiza socotrana Sokotraammer
Cape Bunting Emberiza capensis Kapammer
Ochre-rumped Bunting Emberiza yessoensis Mandschurenammer
Tristram's Bunting Emberiza tristrami Tristramammer
Chestnut-eared Bunting Emberiza fucata Bandammer
Little Bunting Emberiza pusilla Zwergammer
Yellow-browed Bunting Emberiza chrysophrys Gelbbrauenammer
Rustic Bunting Emberiza rustica Waldammer
Yellow-throated Bunting Emberiza elegans Gelbkehlammer
Yellow-breasted Bunting Emberiza aureola Weidenammer
Somali Golden-breasted Bunting Emberiza poliopleura Somaliammer
African Golden-breasted Bunting Emberiza flaviventris Gelbbauchammer
Brown-rumped Bunting Emberiza affinis Braunbürzelammer
Cabanis's Bunting Emberiza cabanisi Cabanisammer
Chestnut Bunting Emberiza rutila Rötelammer
Tibetan Bunting Emberiza koslowi Koslowammer
Black-headed Bunting Emberiza melanocephala Kappenammer
Red-headed Bunting Emberiza bruniceps Braunkopfammer
Yellow Bunting Emberiza sulphurata Schwefelammer
Black-faced Bunting Emberiza spodocephala Maskenammer
Grey Bunting Emberiza variabilis Bambusammer
Crested Bunting Emberiza lathami Haubenammer
Slaty Bunting@ Emberiza siemsseni Blauammer
Corn Bunting Emberiza calandra Grauammer
Yellowhammer Emberiza citrinella Goldammer
Pine Bunting Emberiza leucocephalos Fichtenammer
Rock Bunting Emberiza cia Zippammer
Godlewski's Bunting Emberiza godlewskii
Meadow Bunting Emberiza cioides Wiesenammer
Rufous-backed Bunting Emberiza jankowskii Jankowskiammer
Many-coloured Chaco-Finch Saltatricula multicolor Vielfarbenammer
Yellow Cardinal Gubernatrix cristata Grünkardinal
Pileated Finch Lanio pileatus Grauer Kronfink
Red-crested Finch Lanio cucullatus Haubenfink
Crimson-breasted Finch Lanio cruentus Purpurkronfink
Red-crested Cardinal Paroaria coronata Graukardinal
Red-cowled Cardinal@ Paroaria dominicana Dominkanerkardinal
Red-capped Cardinal Paroaria gularis Schwarzkehlkardinal Cardenilla Capirroja
Crimson-fronted Cardinal@ Paroaria baeri Blutstirnkardinal
Yellow-billed Cardinal Paroaria capitata Mantelkardinal Mantelkardinal
Gorgeted Puffleg@ Eriocnemis isabellae
Black-spectacled Brush-Finch@ Atlapetes melanopsis
Vilcabamba Brush-Finch@ Atlapetes terborghi
Grey Brush-Finch@ Atlapetes canigenis
Black-faced Brush-Finch@ Atlapetes melanolaemus
Rusty-bellied Brush-Finch@ Atlapetes nationi Rostbauch-Buschammer
Bay-crowned Brush-Finch Atlapetes seebohmi
White-winged Brush-Finch Atlapetes leucopterus Spiegelbuschammer
White-headed Brush-Finch Atlapetes albiceps Weißkopf-Buschammer
Pale-headed Brush-Finch@ Atlapetes pallidiceps Blaßkopf-Buschammer
Rufous-eared Brush-Finch@ Atlapetes rufigenis Rotohr-Buschammer
Apurimac Brush-Finch@ Atlapetes forbesi
Ochre-breasted Brush-Finch Atlapetes semirufus Ockerbrust-Buschammer
Tepui Brush-Finch Atlapetes personatus Tepuibuschammer
Fulvous-headed Brush-Finch Atlapetes fulviceps Braunbart-Buschammer
Yellow-striped Brush-Finch Atlapetes citrinellus Schwarzbart-Buschammer
Chestnut-capped Brush-Finch Arremon brunneinucha Braunkopf-Buschammer
Green-striped Brush-Finch@ Arremon virenticeps Grünscheitel-Buschammer
Black-headed Brush-Finch Arremon atricapillus Schwarzkopf-Buschammer
Stripe-headed Brush-Finch Arremon torquatus Streifenkopf-Buschammer
Large-footed Finch Pezopetes capitalis Großfuß-Buschammer
Tanager Finch Oreothraupis arremonops Tangarenbuschammer
Yellow-thighed Finch Pselliophorus tibialis Gelbschenkel-Buschammer
Yellow-green Finch@ Pselliophorus luteoviridis Griscombuschammer
Sooty-faced Finch Arremon crassirostris Dickschnabel-Buschammer
Olive Finch Arremon castaneiceps Olivbuschammer
Black-backed Bush-Tanager Urothraupis stolzmanni Stolzmanntangare
Pardusco@ Nephelornis oneilli Pardusco
Coal-crested Finch Charitospiza eucosma Weißohr-Zwergkardinal
Black-masked Finch Coryphaspiza melanotis Camposammer
Abert's Towhee Kieneria aberti Schwarzkinn-Grundammer
White-throated Towhee@ Kieneria albicollis Weißkehl-Grundammer
Rusty-crowned Ground-Sparrow@ Kieneria kieneri Rostnackenammer
Prevost's Ground-Sparrow Melozone biarcuata Weißwangenammer
Cabanis's Ground-Sparrow@ Melozone cabanisi
White-eared Ground-Sparrow Melozone leucotis Weißohrammer
Pectoral Sparrow Arremon taciturnus Schwarzbrust-Ruderammer
Half-collared Sparrow Arremon semitorquatus
Sao Francisco Sparrow@ Arremon franciscanus
Saffron-billed Sparrow Arremon flavirostris Zitronenschnabel-Ruderammer
Orange-billed Sparrow Arremon aurantiirostris Goldschnabel-Ruderammer
Golden-winged Sparrow Arremon schlegeli Goldflügel-Ruderammer
Black-capped Sparrow Arremon abeillei Kapuzenruderammer
Olive Sparrow Arremonops rufivirgatus Olivrückenammer
Tocuyo Sparrow Arremonops tocuyensis Tocuyoammer
Green-backed Sparrow Arremonops chloronotus Grünrückenammer
Black-striped Sparrow Arremonops conirostris Panamaammer
White-naped Brush-Finch Atlapetes albinucha Weißnacken-Buschammer
Yellow-throated Brush-Finch Atlapetes gutturalis
Pale-naped Brush-Finch Atlapetes pallidinucha Zimtstirn-Buschammer
Bolivian Rufous-naped Brush-Finch@ Atlapetes rufinucha Rotnacken-Buschammer
Northern Rufous-naped Brush-Finch Atlapetes latinuchus
White-rimmed Brush-Finch Atlapetes leucopis Brillenbuschammer
Rufous-capped Brush-Finch@ Atlapetes pileatus Rotkappen-Buschammer
Santa Marta Brush-Finch@ Atlapetes melanocephalus Grauohr-Buschammer
Olive-headed Brush-Finch@ Atlapetes flaviceps Goldkopf-Buschammer
Dusky-headed Brush-Finch@ Atlapetes fuscoolivaceus Rußkopf-Buschammer
Tricolored Brush-Finch Atlapetes tricolor Dreifarben-Buschammer
Moustached Brush-Finch Atlapetes albofrenatus Weißbart-Buschammer
Slaty Brush-Finch Atlapetes schistaceus Graubrust-Buschammer
Masked Cardinal Paroaria nigrogenis Maskenkardinal Cardenilla Enmascarada
Pearly-bellied Seedeater Sporophila pileata
Grey-throated Warbling-Finch@ Microspingus cabanisi Graubrust-Ammerfink Monterita de Cabanis
Nightingale Finch@ Nesospiza questi Questammerfink Yal de la Nightingale
House Bunting Emberiza sahari Hausammer Escribano Sahariano
Blackish-blue Seedeater Cyanoloxia moesta Weißachselpfäffchen
Grey Warbler-Finch@ Certhidea fusca Blindloedarwinfink Pinzón de Darwin Gris

Help with Searching

My work on birds is carried out in a huge database, where I can have all records open at once. However, converting details on over 10,000 species of birds at once into html is not possible, so the information in my database can be accessed via a search engine, or by going to a family group.

Here is some advice on searching. You may like to try the examples cited below to get experience with searching.

You can search on Scientific Name (for example, “Rallus longirostris”); or on English Name (for example, “Clapper Rail”); or on French Name “Râle gris”; or German Name (for example, “Klapperralle”); or Spanish Name (for example “Rascón Piquilargo”). You can search on only one of these at a time. If the search finds a unique match, it will display full details of the species. Note that some of the fields, which may contain large amounts of information, require you to click on a “Click to see full text” to view the information in a separate window.

If the search finds more than one match, it will display all species that match the search term. For example, if you type just “Rallus” against Scientific Name, the detail of all birds in the genus Rallus will be displayed. You are warned against typing a search term that will produce hundreds of records, such as “Flycatcher” under English Name, as the resulting list may overwhelm your computer’s memory.

If you enter a search term under English Synonym ( for example, “Little Cassowary”), if the search finds a unique match, it will display the details of the species to which this name relates (in this case “Dwarf Cassowary” Casuarius bennettii). If the search term finds more than one match among English Synonyms, it will display all species that have a match with the search term ( for example, try just “Cassowary”. This will list all species that have an English synonym that includes the word “Cassowary”.)

You can also search by Scientific Synonym. For example, if you type “Scolopax obscura”, the following record will be displayed:
Scolopax obscura S.G.Gmelin,1784,Reise durch Russland zur Untersuchung der drey Reiche,3,p.90,pl.17. (Shore of Caspian Sea). (= R.a.aquaticus)

The search may retrieve more than one record. For example, if you search for “Rallus gularis”, you will get both the following records:
Rallus gularis Horsfield,1821,Transactions of the Linnaean Society of London,13,pt.1,p.196.(Java.), which is the basis of Gallirallus striatus gularis; and
Rallus gularis Lesson(ex Cuvier MS),”1831”,Traité d'Ornithologie(1830),p.536. (Madagascar). Not Rallus gularis of Horsfield,1821. (= D.c.cuvieri), which is a synonym, though not available because it is pre-occupied, of Dryolimnas cuvieri cuvieri.

Of course if you use a single word as a search term, such as “Hypotaenidia”, your search will produce all synonyms containing this term.

You should be aware that I have reproduced exactly the name as it was cited by the original author. For example, Gallirallus was originally proposed by Lafresnaye,1841 as “Galli-rallus”. And the ligature “æ” was widely used before the twentieth century, as in “Anser cærulescens Bonnaterre,1790”.
I am in the process of going through my file and replacing all instances of spelling which deviate from the modern spelling with, for example, “Gallirallus [as Galli-rallus] Lafresnaye,1841”.
Another problem is that where a citation has abbreviated the name, the abbreviated portions of the name are reproduced in brackets. For example, in G. R. Gray, 1844-49, the genus was abbreviated to the first letter; thus we find C[achinna] herpetotheres.

If you enter a term under Generic Name, if a unique match is found, it should display a single record. For example, if you enter “Rallus”, the following will be displayed:
Rallus Linnaeus,1758,Systema Naturae....editio decima,tom.1,pars 1,p.153.Type,by subsequent designation (Fleming,1821,Memoirs of the Wernerian Natural History Society,3,p.176.),Rallus aquaticus Linnaeus,1758.

Note that this is case-sensitive, for example if you type Rallus, the citation for “Gallirallus” will not be displayed, nor that for “Laterallus”.

Since my checklist is extensively annotated, this search will also display any notes that apply to a generic name. For example, if you searched for “Lyrurus”, the following will be produced:
Lyrurus Swainson,”1831”,in Swainson & Richardson,Fauna Boreali-Americana,2(1832),p.497.Type,by original designation,Tetrao tetrix Linnaeus,1758.
Note!:Madge & McGowan,2002,Pheasants,Partridges and Grouse,p.368 resurrect Lyrurus as a genus:"Though often absorbed within Tetrao,the two species of black grouse form a distinctive pair...both Lyrurus have quite ornate,peculiarly twisted tails and
(ctd!) indulge in communal lekking, which differs considerably from the often solitary "popping" of forest-living capercaillies."

Searching for a Subgeneric name is similar. For example, if you enter “Tricholimnas”, you will get:
Tricholimnas Sharpe,1893,Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club,1,p.28.Type,by original designation,Tricholimnas lafresnayanus (Verreaux) = Gallirallus lafresnayanus J. Verreaux & Des Murs,1860.
And as is usual with subgeneric names, a following note:
Note>:Tricholimnas contains only G.lafresnayanus.

Finally, you can search on Generic or Subgeneric Synonym. If you type “Nesolimnas”, you will get:
Nesolimnas Andrews,1896,Novitates Zoologicae,3,pp.260,266.Type,by monotypy,Rallus dieffenbachii G.R.Gray,1843. (= Hypotaenidea)
The entry on brackets indicates that this is a synonym of the subgeneric name Hypotaenidea.

Note that such searches will not infrequently produce more than one result. This will include cases where a name was originally cited as a Nomen nudum (that is, no type species was designated), and later cited with a valid type species. It will also include cases of Homonyms, where the later name will be marked “Not….”.

If you have any further queries, please email jpenhall@bigpond.net.au