English Name Scientific Name German Name Spanish Name
Wire-tailed Swallow Hirundo smithii Rotkappenschwalbe
Blue Swallow Hirundo atrocaerulea Stahlschwalbe
White-throated Blue Swallow Hirundo nigrita Mohrenschwalbe
Pied-winged Swallow Hirundo leucosoma Scheckflügelschwalbe
White-tailed Swallow@ Hirundo megaensis Weißschwanzschwalbe
Black-and-rufous Swallow Hirundo nigrorufa Rostbauchschwalbe
Pearl-breasted Swallow Hirundo dimidiata Perlbrustschwalbe
Greater Striped-Swallow Cecropis cucullata Kapschwalbe
Lesser Striped-Swallow Cecropis abyssinica Maidschwalbe
Rufous-chested Swallow Cecropis semirufa Rotbrustschwalbe
Mosque Swallow Cecropis senegalensis Senegalschwalbe
Red-rumped Swallow Cecropis daurica Rötelschwalbe Golondrina Dáurica
Striated Swallow Cecropis striolata Strichelschwalbe
Red Sea Swallow Petrochelidon perdita Rotmeerschwalbe
Red-throated Swallow Petrochelidon rufigula Rotkehlschwalbe
Preuss's Swallow Petrochelidon preussi Rostschläfenschwalbe
Tree Martin Petrochelidon nigricans Baumschwalbe
South African Cliff-Swallow Petrochelidon spilodera Klippenschwalbe
Streak-throated Swallow Petrochelidon fluvicola Braunscheitelschwalbe
Fairy Martin Petrochelidon ariel Arielschwalbe
Forest Swallow Petrochelidon fuliginosa Bronzeschwalbe
Cliff Swallow Petrochelidon pyrrhonota Fahlstirnschwalbe
Cave Swallow Petrochelidon fulva Höhlenschwalbe
Cave Swallow Petrochelidon pelodoma
Chestnut-collared Swallow Petrochelidon rufocollaris
Northern House-Martin Delichon urbicum Mehlschwalbe Avión Común
Asian House-Martin Delichon dasypus Kaschmirschwalbe
Nepal House-Martin Delichon nipalense Nepalschwalbe
Square-tailed Saw-wing Psalidoprocne nitens Grünglanzschwalbe
Mountain Saw-wing Psalidoprocne fuliginosa Kamerunschwalbe
White-headed Saw-wing Psalidoprocne albiceps Weißkopfschwalbe
Black Saw-wing@ Psalidoprocne pristoptera Erzschwalbe Golondrina negra
Fanti Saw-wing Psalidoprocne obscura Scherenschwanzschwalbe
White-banded Swallow Notiochelidon fasciata Weißbandschwalbe
Black-collared Swallow Pygochelidon melanoleuca Halsbandschwalbe
White-thighed Swallow Notiochelidon tibialis Zwergschwalbe
Tawny-headed Swallow Alopochelidon fucata Fuchsschwalbe
Northern Rough-winged Swallow Stelgidopteryx serripennis Nördliche Rauhflügelschwalbe
Ridgway's Rough-winged Swallow Stelgidopteryx ridgwayi
Southern Rough-winged Swallow Stelgidopteryx ruficollis Südliche Rauhflügelschwalbe
Andean Swallow Orochelidon andecola Andenschwalbe
White-backed Swallow@ Cheramoeca leucosterna Weißrückenschwalbe
Grey-rumped Swallow Pseudhirundo griseopyga Graubürzelschwalbe
Banded Martin Phedina cincta Weißbrauen-Uferschwalbe
Brown-throated Martin Riparia paludicola Braunkehl-Uferschwalbe Avión Zapador Africano
Congo Martin Riparia congica Kongouferschwalbe
Sand Martin Riparia riparia Uferschwalbe Avión Zapador
Pale Sand Martin Riparia diluta Fahluferschwalbe Avión Pálido
Mascarene Martin Phedina borbonica Maskarenenschwalbe
Brazza's Martin Phedina brazzae Brazzaschwalbe
Eurasian Crag-Martin Ptyonoprogne rupestris Felsenschwalbe Avión Roquero
Pale Crag-Martin Ptyonoprogne obsoleta Wüstenschwalbe
African Rock Martin Ptyonoprogne fuligula Steinschwalbe Avión Roquero Africano
Dusky Crag-Martin Ptyonoprogne concolor Einfarbschwalbe
Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica Rauchschwalbe Golondrina Común
Red-chested Swallow Hirundo lucida Singschwalbe
Angolan Swallow Hirundo angolensis Angolaschwalbe
Pacific Swallow Hirundo tahitica Südseeschwalbe
Welcome Swallow Hirundo neoxena
White-throated Swallow Hirundo albigularis Weißkehlschwalbe
Hill Swallow Hirundo domicola
Ethiopean Swallow Hirundo aethiopica Fahlkehlschwalbe
Tree Swallow Tachycineta bicolor Sumpfschwalbe
Mangrove Swallow Tachycineta albilinea Mangroveschwalbe
Tumbes Swallow@ Tachycineta stolzmanni
White-winged Swallow Tachycineta albiventer Cayenneschwalbe
White-rumped Swallow Tachycineta leucorrhoa Weißbürzelschwalbe
Chilean Swallow Tachycineta leucopyga Feuerlandschwalbe
Violet-green Swallow Tachycineta thalassina Veilchenschwalbe
Bahama Swallow Tachycineta cyaneoviridis Bahamaschwalbe
Golden Swallow Tachycineta euchrysea Antillenschwalbe
Brown-chested Martin Progne tapera Braunbrustschwalbe
Purple Martin Progne subis Purpurschwalbe
Cuban Martin@ Progne cryptoleuca Kubaschwalbe
Caribbean Martin Progne dominicensis Dominikanerschwalbe
Sinaloa Martin Progne sinaloae Sinaloaschwalbe
Grey-breasted Martin Progne chalybea Graubrustschwalbe
Galapagos Martin@ Progne modesta Galapagosschwalbe Golondrina de Galapagos
Blue-and-white Swallow Pygochelidon cyanoleuca Schwarzsteißschwalbe
Brown-bellied Swallow Orochelidon murina Mausschwalbe
Pale-footed Swallow Orochelidon flavipes Blaßfußschwalbe
Black-capped Swallow Atticora pileata Kappenschwalbe
Peruvian Martin Progne murphyi Peruschwalbe Golondrina Peruana
Southern Martin Progne elegans Blauschwalbe Golondrina Sureña
Sri Lanka Swallow@ Cecropis hyperythra Sri Lanka-Schwalbe Golondrina de Sri Lanka

Help with Searching

My work on birds is carried out in a huge database, where I can have all records open at once. However, converting details on over 10,000 species of birds at once into html is not possible, so the information in my database can be accessed via a search engine, or by going to a family group.

Here is some advice on searching. You may like to try the examples cited below to get experience with searching.

You can search on Scientific Name (for example, “Rallus longirostris”); or on English Name (for example, “Clapper Rail”); or on French Name “Râle gris”; or German Name (for example, “Klapperralle”); or Spanish Name (for example “Rascón Piquilargo”). You can search on only one of these at a time. If the search finds a unique match, it will display full details of the species. Note that some of the fields, which may contain large amounts of information, require you to click on a “Click to see full text” to view the information in a separate window.

If the search finds more than one match, it will display all species that match the search term. For example, if you type just “Rallus” against Scientific Name, the detail of all birds in the genus Rallus will be displayed. You are warned against typing a search term that will produce hundreds of records, such as “Flycatcher” under English Name, as the resulting list may overwhelm your computer’s memory.

If you enter a search term under English Synonym ( for example, “Little Cassowary”), if the search finds a unique match, it will display the details of the species to which this name relates (in this case “Dwarf Cassowary” Casuarius bennettii). If the search term finds more than one match among English Synonyms, it will display all species that have a match with the search term ( for example, try just “Cassowary”. This will list all species that have an English synonym that includes the word “Cassowary”.)

You can also search by Scientific Synonym. For example, if you type “Scolopax obscura”, the following record will be displayed:
Scolopax obscura S.G.Gmelin,1784,Reise durch Russland zur Untersuchung der drey Reiche,3,p.90,pl.17. (Shore of Caspian Sea). (= R.a.aquaticus)

The search may retrieve more than one record. For example, if you search for “Rallus gularis”, you will get both the following records:
Rallus gularis Horsfield,1821,Transactions of the Linnaean Society of London,13,pt.1,p.196.(Java.), which is the basis of Gallirallus striatus gularis; and
Rallus gularis Lesson(ex Cuvier MS),”1831”,Traité d'Ornithologie(1830),p.536. (Madagascar). Not Rallus gularis of Horsfield,1821. (= D.c.cuvieri), which is a synonym, though not available because it is pre-occupied, of Dryolimnas cuvieri cuvieri.

Of course if you use a single word as a search term, such as “Hypotaenidia”, your search will produce all synonyms containing this term.

You should be aware that I have reproduced exactly the name as it was cited by the original author. For example, Gallirallus was originally proposed by Lafresnaye,1841 as “Galli-rallus”. And the ligature “æ” was widely used before the twentieth century, as in “Anser cærulescens Bonnaterre,1790”.
I am in the process of going through my file and replacing all instances of spelling which deviate from the modern spelling with, for example, “Gallirallus [as Galli-rallus] Lafresnaye,1841”.
Another problem is that where a citation has abbreviated the name, the abbreviated portions of the name are reproduced in brackets. For example, in G. R. Gray, 1844-49, the genus was abbreviated to the first letter; thus we find C[achinna] herpetotheres.

If you enter a term under Generic Name, if a unique match is found, it should display a single record. For example, if you enter “Rallus”, the following will be displayed:
Rallus Linnaeus,1758,Systema Naturae....editio decima,tom.1,pars 1,p.153.Type,by subsequent designation (Fleming,1821,Memoirs of the Wernerian Natural History Society,3,p.176.),Rallus aquaticus Linnaeus,1758.

Note that this is case-sensitive, for example if you type Rallus, the citation for “Gallirallus” will not be displayed, nor that for “Laterallus”.

Since my checklist is extensively annotated, this search will also display any notes that apply to a generic name. For example, if you searched for “Lyrurus”, the following will be produced:
Lyrurus Swainson,”1831”,in Swainson & Richardson,Fauna Boreali-Americana,2(1832),p.497.Type,by original designation,Tetrao tetrix Linnaeus,1758.
Note!:Madge & McGowan,2002,Pheasants,Partridges and Grouse,p.368 resurrect Lyrurus as a genus:"Though often absorbed within Tetrao,the two species of black grouse form a distinctive pair...both Lyrurus have quite ornate,peculiarly twisted tails and
(ctd!) indulge in communal lekking, which differs considerably from the often solitary "popping" of forest-living capercaillies."

Searching for a Subgeneric name is similar. For example, if you enter “Tricholimnas”, you will get:
Tricholimnas Sharpe,1893,Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club,1,p.28.Type,by original designation,Tricholimnas lafresnayanus (Verreaux) = Gallirallus lafresnayanus J. Verreaux & Des Murs,1860.
And as is usual with subgeneric names, a following note:
Note>:Tricholimnas contains only G.lafresnayanus.

Finally, you can search on Generic or Subgeneric Synonym. If you type “Nesolimnas”, you will get:
Nesolimnas Andrews,1896,Novitates Zoologicae,3,pp.260,266.Type,by monotypy,Rallus dieffenbachii G.R.Gray,1843. (= Hypotaenidea)
The entry on brackets indicates that this is a synonym of the subgeneric name Hypotaenidea.

Note that such searches will not infrequently produce more than one result. This will include cases where a name was originally cited as a Nomen nudum (that is, no type species was designated), and later cited with a valid type species. It will also include cases of Homonyms, where the later name will be marked “Not….”.

If you have any further queries, please email jpenhall@bigpond.net.au