English Name Scientific Name German Name Spanish Name
Velvet-fronted Grackle Lampropsar tanagrinus Samtstirnstärling
Mountain Grackle@ Macroagelaius subalaris Braunachselstärling
Golden-tufted Grackle Macroagelaius imthurni Goldachselstärling
Cuban Blackbird@ Ptiloxena atroviolacea Kubastärling
Melodious Blackbird Dives dives Trauerstärling
Scrub Blackbird Dives warszewiczi Buschstärling
Common Grackle Quiscalus quiscula Purpurgrackel
Boat-tailed Grackle@ Quiscalus major Bootschwanzgrackel
Great-tailed Grackle Quiscalus mexicanus Dohlengrackel
Slender-billed Grackle@+ Quiscalus palustris
Nicaraguan Grackle Quiscalus nicaraguensis Nicaraguagrackel
Greater Antillean Grackle Quiscalus niger Antillengrackel
Carib Grackle Quiscalus lugubris Trauergrackel
Rusty Blackbird Euphagus carolinus Roststärling
Brewer's Blackbird Euphagus cyanocephalus Purpurstärling
Bay-winged Cowbird Agelaioides badius Braunkuhstärling
Screaming Cowbird Molothrus rufoaxillaris Rotachsel-Kuhstärling
Shiny Cowbird Molothrus bonariensis Seidenkuhstärling
Bronzed Cowbird Molothrus aeneus Rotaugen-Kuhstärling
Brown-headed Cowbird Molothrus ater Braunkopf-Kuhstärling
Giant Cowbird Molothrus oryzivorus Riesenkuhstärling
Jamaican Blackbird@ Nesopsar nigerrimus Bromelienstärling
Oriole Blackbird Gymnomystax mexicanus Nacktaugentrupial
Yellow-headed Blackbird Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus Brillenstärling
Saffron-cowled Blackbird Xanthopsar flavus Gilbstärling
Pale-eyed Blackbird Agelasticus xanthophthalmus Gelbaugenstärling
Yellow-winged Blackbird Agelasticus thilius Goldschulterstärling
Unicolored Blackbird Agelasticus cyanopus Einfarbstärling
Red-winged Blackbird Agelaius phoeniceus Rotschulterstärling
Red-shouldered Blackbird@ Agelaius assimilis
Tricolored Blackbird Agelaius tricolor Dreifarbenstärling
Tawny-shouldered Blackbird Agelaius humeralis Braunschulterstärling
Yellow-shouldered Blackbird@ Agelaius xanthomus Gelbschulterstärling
Yellow-hooded Blackbird Chrysocomus icterocephalus Gelbkopfstärling
Chestnut-capped Blackbird Chrysocomus ruficapillus Braunkopfstärling
Red-breasted Blackbird Sturnella militaris
White-browed Blackbird Sturnella superciliaris Weißbrauenstärling
Peruvian Meadowlark Sturnella bellicosa Weißschenkelstärling
Pampas Meadowlark Sturnella defilippi Rotbruststärling
Long-tailed Meadowlark Sturnella loyca Langschwanzstärling
Eastern Meadowlark Sturnella magna Lerchenstärling
Lilian's Meadowlark Sturnella lilianae
Western Meadowlark Sturnella neglecta Wiesenstärling
Yellow-rumped Marshbird Pseudoleistes guirahuro Gelbbürzelstärling
Brown-and-yellow Marshbird Pseudoleistes virescens Drachenstärling
Scarlet-headed Blackbird Amblyramphus holosericeus Rotkopfstärling
Red-bellied Grackle@ Hypopyrrhus pyrohypogaster Rotbauchstärling
Austral Blackbird Curaeus curaeus Stachelkopfstärling
Forbes's Blackbird@ Anumara forbesi Forbesstärling
Chopi Blackbird Gnorimopsar chopi Chopistärling
Bolivian Blackbird@ Oreopsar bolivianus Andenstärling
Solitary Cacique Procacicus solitarius Stahlkassike
Yellow-billed Cacique Amblycercus holosericeus Gelbschnabelkassike
Epaulet Oriole Icterus cayanensis Epaulettentrupial
Variable Oriole Icterus pyrrhopterus Goldkappentrupial
Yellow-backed Oriole Icterus chrysater Schwarzflügeltrupial
Yellow Oriole Icterus nigrogularis Orangebrusttrupial
Jamaican Oriole Icterus leucopteryx Jamaikatrupial
Orange Oriole@ Icterus auratus Goldtrupial
Yellow-tailed Oriole Icterus mesomelas Gelbschwanztrupial
Orange-crowned Oriole Icterus auricapillus Orangekopftrupial
White-edged Oriole Icterus graceannae Weißschwingentrupial
Spot-breasted Oriole Icterus pectoralis Tropfentrupial
Altamira Oriole Icterus gularis Schwarzkehltrupial
Streak-backed Oriole Icterus pustulatus Piroltrupial
Hooded Oriole Icterus cucullatus Maskentrupial
Venezuelan Troupial Icterus icterus Orangetrupial
Campo Troupial Icterus jamacaii
Baltimore Oriole Icterus galbula Baltimoretrupial
Bullock's Oriole Icterus bullockii
Black-backed Oriole@ Icterus abeillei
Orchard Oriole Icterus spurius Gartentrupial
Hispaniolan Oriole Icterus dominicensis Antillentrupial
Black-cowled Oriole Icterus prosthemelas
Black-vented Oriole Icterus wagleri Waglertrupial
St Lucia Oriole@ Icterus laudabilis Santa-Lucia-Trupial
Martinique Oriole@ Icterus bonana Braunkopftrupial
Montserrat Oriole@ Icterus oberi Montserrattrupial
Audubon's Oriole Icterus graduacauda Schwarzkopftrupial
Bar-winged Oriole Icterus maculialatus Bindentrupial
Scott's Oriole Icterus parisorum Scott-Trupial
Casqued Oropendola Cacicus oseryi Helmstirnvogel
Band-tailed Oropendola Cacicus latirostris Breitschnabel-Stirnvogel
Crested Oropendola Psarocolius decumanus Krähenstirnvogel
Dusky-green Oropendola Psarocolius atrovirens Grünschnabel-Stirnvogel
Russet-backed Oropendola Psarocolius angustifrons Breithauben-Stirnvogel
Chestnut-headed Oropendola Psarocolius wagleri Rotkopf-Stirnvogel
Green Oropendola Psarocolius viridis Grünschopf-Stirnvogel
Montezuma Oropendola Psarocolius montezuma Montezumastirnvogel
Baudo Oropendola@ Psarocolius cassini Braunmantel-Stirnvogel
Amazonian Oropendola Psarocolius bifasciatus Parastirnvogel
Black Oropendola@ Psarocolius guatimozinus Mohrenstirnvogel
Yellow-rumped Cacique Cacicus cela Gelbbürzelkassike
Red-rumped Cacique Cacicus haemorrhous Rotbürzelkassike
Scarlet-rumped Cacique Cacicus microrhynchus
Subtropical Cacique Cacicus uropygialis Scharlachbürzelkassike
Golden-winged Cacique Cacicus chrysopterus Goldschulterkassike
Selva Cacique@ Cacicus koepckeae
Mountain Cacique Cacicus chrysonotus
Ecuadorian Cacique Cacicus sclateri Trauerkassike
Yellow-winged Cacique@ Caciculus melanicterus Haubenkassike
Bahaman Oriole@ Icterus northropi Bahamatrupial Turpial de las Bahamas
Puerto Rican Oriole@ Icterus portoricensis Puerto-Rico-Trupial Turpial Puertorriqueño

Help with Searching

My work on birds is carried out in a huge database, where I can have all records open at once. However, converting details on over 10,000 species of birds at once into html is not possible, so the information in my database can be accessed via a search engine, or by going to a family group.

Here is some advice on searching. You may like to try the examples cited below to get experience with searching.

You can search on Scientific Name (for example, “Rallus longirostris”); or on English Name (for example, “Clapper Rail”); or on French Name “Râle gris”; or German Name (for example, “Klapperralle”); or Spanish Name (for example “Rascón Piquilargo”). You can search on only one of these at a time. If the search finds a unique match, it will display full details of the species. Note that some of the fields, which may contain large amounts of information, require you to click on a “Click to see full text” to view the information in a separate window.

If the search finds more than one match, it will display all species that match the search term. For example, if you type just “Rallus” against Scientific Name, the detail of all birds in the genus Rallus will be displayed. You are warned against typing a search term that will produce hundreds of records, such as “Flycatcher” under English Name, as the resulting list may overwhelm your computer’s memory.

If you enter a search term under English Synonym ( for example, “Little Cassowary”), if the search finds a unique match, it will display the details of the species to which this name relates (in this case “Dwarf Cassowary” Casuarius bennettii). If the search term finds more than one match among English Synonyms, it will display all species that have a match with the search term ( for example, try just “Cassowary”. This will list all species that have an English synonym that includes the word “Cassowary”.)

You can also search by Scientific Synonym. For example, if you type “Scolopax obscura”, the following record will be displayed:
Scolopax obscura S.G.Gmelin,1784,Reise durch Russland zur Untersuchung der drey Reiche,3,p.90,pl.17. (Shore of Caspian Sea). (= R.a.aquaticus)

The search may retrieve more than one record. For example, if you search for “Rallus gularis”, you will get both the following records:
Rallus gularis Horsfield,1821,Transactions of the Linnaean Society of London,13,pt.1,p.196.(Java.), which is the basis of Gallirallus striatus gularis; and
Rallus gularis Lesson(ex Cuvier MS),”1831”,Traité d'Ornithologie(1830),p.536. (Madagascar). Not Rallus gularis of Horsfield,1821. (= D.c.cuvieri), which is a synonym, though not available because it is pre-occupied, of Dryolimnas cuvieri cuvieri.

Of course if you use a single word as a search term, such as “Hypotaenidia”, your search will produce all synonyms containing this term.

You should be aware that I have reproduced exactly the name as it was cited by the original author. For example, Gallirallus was originally proposed by Lafresnaye,1841 as “Galli-rallus”. And the ligature “æ” was widely used before the twentieth century, as in “Anser cærulescens Bonnaterre,1790”.
I am in the process of going through my file and replacing all instances of spelling which deviate from the modern spelling with, for example, “Gallirallus [as Galli-rallus] Lafresnaye,1841”.
Another problem is that where a citation has abbreviated the name, the abbreviated portions of the name are reproduced in brackets. For example, in G. R. Gray, 1844-49, the genus was abbreviated to the first letter; thus we find C[achinna] herpetotheres.

If you enter a term under Generic Name, if a unique match is found, it should display a single record. For example, if you enter “Rallus”, the following will be displayed:
Rallus Linnaeus,1758,Systema Naturae....editio decima,tom.1,pars 1,p.153.Type,by subsequent designation (Fleming,1821,Memoirs of the Wernerian Natural History Society,3,p.176.),Rallus aquaticus Linnaeus,1758.

Note that this is case-sensitive, for example if you type Rallus, the citation for “Gallirallus” will not be displayed, nor that for “Laterallus”.

Since my checklist is extensively annotated, this search will also display any notes that apply to a generic name. For example, if you searched for “Lyrurus”, the following will be produced:
Lyrurus Swainson,”1831”,in Swainson & Richardson,Fauna Boreali-Americana,2(1832),p.497.Type,by original designation,Tetrao tetrix Linnaeus,1758.
Note!:Madge & McGowan,2002,Pheasants,Partridges and Grouse,p.368 resurrect Lyrurus as a genus:"Though often absorbed within Tetrao,the two species of black grouse form a distinctive pair...both Lyrurus have quite ornate,peculiarly twisted tails and
(ctd!) indulge in communal lekking, which differs considerably from the often solitary "popping" of forest-living capercaillies."

Searching for a Subgeneric name is similar. For example, if you enter “Tricholimnas”, you will get:
Tricholimnas Sharpe,1893,Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club,1,p.28.Type,by original designation,Tricholimnas lafresnayanus (Verreaux) = Gallirallus lafresnayanus J. Verreaux & Des Murs,1860.
And as is usual with subgeneric names, a following note:
Note>:Tricholimnas contains only G.lafresnayanus.

Finally, you can search on Generic or Subgeneric Synonym. If you type “Nesolimnas”, you will get:
Nesolimnas Andrews,1896,Novitates Zoologicae,3,pp.260,266.Type,by monotypy,Rallus dieffenbachii G.R.Gray,1843. (= Hypotaenidea)
The entry on brackets indicates that this is a synonym of the subgeneric name Hypotaenidea.

Note that such searches will not infrequently produce more than one result. This will include cases where a name was originally cited as a Nomen nudum (that is, no type species was designated), and later cited with a valid type species. It will also include cases of Homonyms, where the later name will be marked “Not….”.

If you have any further queries, please email jpenhall@bigpond.net.au