English Name Scientific Name German Name Spanish Name
Dolphin Gull Leucophaeus scoresbii Blutschnabelmöwe Gaviota Patagona
Lava Gull@ Leucophaeus fuliginosus Lavamöwe Gaviota Fuliginosa
Grey Gull Leucophaeus modestus Graumöwe Gaviota Garuma
Laughing Gull Leucophaeus atricilla Aztekenmöwe Gaviota Guanaguanare
Franklin's Gull Leucophaeus pipixcan Präriemöwe Gaviota Pipizcan
White-eyed Gull Ichthyaetus leucophthalmus Weißaugenmöwe Gaviota Ojiblanca
Sooty Gull Ichthyaetus hemprichii Hemprichmöwe Gaviota Cejiblanca
Pallas's Gull Ichthyaetus ichthyaetus Fischmöwe Gavión Cabecinegro
Audouin's Gull Ichthyaetus audouinii Korallenmöwe Gaviota de Andouin
Mediterranean Gull Ichthyaetus melanocephalus Schwarzkopfmöwe Gaviota Cabecinegra
Relict Gull Ichthyaetus relictus Reliktmöwe Gaviota Relicta
Heermann's Gull Larus heermanni Heermannmöwe Gaviota Mexicana
Pacific Gull@ Larus pacificus Dickschnabelmöwe Gaviota Tasmania
Belcher's Gull Larus belcheri Schwanzbandmöwe Gaviota Simeón
Olrog's Gull Larus atlanticus Olrogmöwe Gaviota Cangrejera
Mew Gull Larus canus Sturmmöwe Gaviota Cana
Black-tailed Gull Larus crassirostris Japanmöwe Gaviota Japonesa
Ring-billed Gull Larus delawarensis Ringschnabelmöwe Apipizca de Delaware
European Herring Gull Larus argentatus Silbermöwe Gaviota Argéntea
American Herring Gull Larus smithsonianus Amerikanische Silbermöwe
Heuglin's Gull Larus heuglini Tundramöwe
Vega Gull Larus vegae Ostsibirienmöwe
Thayer's Gull Larus thayeri Thayermöwe Gaviota Esquimal
Caspian Gull Larus cachinnans Steppenmöwe Gaviota Patiamarilla
Yellow-legged Gull Larus michahellis Mittelmeermöwe
Armenian Gull Larus armenicus Armeniermöwe Gaviota Armenia
Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus Heringsmöwe Gaviota Sombría
Sabine's Gull Xema sabini Schwalbenmöwe Gaviota de Sabine
California Gull Larus californicus Kaliforniermöwe Gaviota Californiana
Western Gull Larus occidentalis Westmöwe Gaviota Occidental
Yellow-footed Gull Larus livens Gelbfußmöwe Gaviota de Cortés
Kelp Gull Larus dominicanus Dominikanermöwe Gaviota Cocinera
Slaty-backed Gull Larus schistisagus Kamtschatkamöwe Gaviota de Kamchatka
Mongolian Gull Larus mongolicus
Great Black-backed Gull Larus marinus Mantelmöwe Gavión Atlántico
Glaucous-winged Gull Larus glaucescens Beringmöwe Gaviota de Bering
Glaucous Gull Larus hyperboreus Eismöwe Gavión Hiperbóreo
Iceland Gull Larus glaucoides Polarmöwe Gaviota Groenlandesa
Silver Gull Chroicocephalus novaehollandiae Silberkopfmöwe Gaviota Plateada Australiana
Red-billed Gull@ Chroicocephalus scopulinus Rotschnabelmöwe Gaviota Plateada Neozelandesa
Hartlaub's Gull Chroicocephalus hartlaubii Hartlaubmöwe Gaviota Plateada Surafricana
Brown-headed Gull Chroicocephalus brunnicephalus Braunkopfmöwe Gaviota Centroasiática
Grey-headed Gull Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus Graukopfmöwe Gaviota Cabecigris
Andean Gull Chroicocephalus serranus Andenmöwe Gaviota Andina
Black-billed Gull@ Chroicocephalus bulleri Maorimöwe Gaviota Maori
Brown-hooded Gull Chroicocephalus maculipennis Patagonienmöwe Gaviota Cahuil
Black-headed Gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus Lachmöwe Gaviota Reidora
Slender-billed Gull Chroicocephalus genei Dünnschnabelmöwe Gaviota Picofina
Bonaparte's Gull Chroicocephalus philadelphia Bonapartemöwe Gaviota de Bonaparte
Little Gull Hydrocoloeus minutus Zwergmöwe Gaviota Enana
Ross's Gull Hydrocoloeus roseus Rosenmöwe Gaviota Rosada
Saunders's Gull Saundersilarus saundersi Saundersmöwe Gaviota de Saunders
Ivory Gull Pagophila eburnea Elfenbeinmöwe Gaviota Marfileña
Black-legged Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla Dreizehenmöwe Gaviota Tridáctila
Red-legged Kittiwake Rissa brevirostris Klippenmöwe Gaviota Piquicorta
Swallow-tailed Gull Creagrus furcatus Gabelschwanzmöwe Gaviota Tijereta

Help with Searching

My work on birds is carried out in a huge database, where I can have all records open at once. However, converting details on over 10,000 species of birds at once into html is not possible, so the information in my database can be accessed via a search engine, or by going to a family group.

Here is some advice on searching. You may like to try the examples cited below to get experience with searching.

You can search on Scientific Name (for example, “Rallus longirostris”); or on English Name (for example, “Clapper Rail”); or on French Name “Râle gris”; or German Name (for example, “Klapperralle”); or Spanish Name (for example “Rascón Piquilargo”). You can search on only one of these at a time. If the search finds a unique match, it will display full details of the species. Note that some of the fields, which may contain large amounts of information, require you to click on a “Click to see full text” to view the information in a separate window.

If the search finds more than one match, it will display all species that match the search term. For example, if you type just “Rallus” against Scientific Name, the detail of all birds in the genus Rallus will be displayed. You are warned against typing a search term that will produce hundreds of records, such as “Flycatcher” under English Name, as the resulting list may overwhelm your computer’s memory.

If you enter a search term under English Synonym ( for example, “Little Cassowary”), if the search finds a unique match, it will display the details of the species to which this name relates (in this case “Dwarf Cassowary” Casuarius bennettii). If the search term finds more than one match among English Synonyms, it will display all species that have a match with the search term ( for example, try just “Cassowary”. This will list all species that have an English synonym that includes the word “Cassowary”.)

You can also search by Scientific Synonym. For example, if you type “Scolopax obscura”, the following record will be displayed:
Scolopax obscura S.G.Gmelin,1784,Reise durch Russland zur Untersuchung der drey Reiche,3,p.90,pl.17. (Shore of Caspian Sea). (= R.a.aquaticus)

The search may retrieve more than one record. For example, if you search for “Rallus gularis”, you will get both the following records:
Rallus gularis Horsfield,1821,Transactions of the Linnaean Society of London,13,pt.1,p.196.(Java.), which is the basis of Gallirallus striatus gularis; and
Rallus gularis Lesson(ex Cuvier MS),”1831”,Traité d'Ornithologie(1830),p.536. (Madagascar). Not Rallus gularis of Horsfield,1821. (= D.c.cuvieri), which is a synonym, though not available because it is pre-occupied, of Dryolimnas cuvieri cuvieri.

Of course if you use a single word as a search term, such as “Hypotaenidia”, your search will produce all synonyms containing this term.

You should be aware that I have reproduced exactly the name as it was cited by the original author. For example, Gallirallus was originally proposed by Lafresnaye,1841 as “Galli-rallus”. And the ligature “æ” was widely used before the twentieth century, as in “Anser cærulescens Bonnaterre,1790”.
I am in the process of going through my file and replacing all instances of spelling which deviate from the modern spelling with, for example, “Gallirallus [as Galli-rallus] Lafresnaye,1841”.
Another problem is that where a citation has abbreviated the name, the abbreviated portions of the name are reproduced in brackets. For example, in G. R. Gray, 1844-49, the genus was abbreviated to the first letter; thus we find C[achinna] herpetotheres.

If you enter a term under Generic Name, if a unique match is found, it should display a single record. For example, if you enter “Rallus”, the following will be displayed:
Rallus Linnaeus,1758,Systema Naturae....editio decima,tom.1,pars 1,p.153.Type,by subsequent designation (Fleming,1821,Memoirs of the Wernerian Natural History Society,3,p.176.),Rallus aquaticus Linnaeus,1758.

Note that this is case-sensitive, for example if you type Rallus, the citation for “Gallirallus” will not be displayed, nor that for “Laterallus”.

Since my checklist is extensively annotated, this search will also display any notes that apply to a generic name. For example, if you searched for “Lyrurus”, the following will be produced:
Lyrurus Swainson,”1831”,in Swainson & Richardson,Fauna Boreali-Americana,2(1832),p.497.Type,by original designation,Tetrao tetrix Linnaeus,1758.
Note!:Madge & McGowan,2002,Pheasants,Partridges and Grouse,p.368 resurrect Lyrurus as a genus:"Though often absorbed within Tetrao,the two species of black grouse form a distinctive pair...both Lyrurus have quite ornate,peculiarly twisted tails and
(ctd!) indulge in communal lekking, which differs considerably from the often solitary "popping" of forest-living capercaillies."

Searching for a Subgeneric name is similar. For example, if you enter “Tricholimnas”, you will get:
Tricholimnas Sharpe,1893,Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club,1,p.28.Type,by original designation,Tricholimnas lafresnayanus (Verreaux) = Gallirallus lafresnayanus J. Verreaux & Des Murs,1860.
And as is usual with subgeneric names, a following note:
Note>:Tricholimnas contains only G.lafresnayanus.

Finally, you can search on Generic or Subgeneric Synonym. If you type “Nesolimnas”, you will get:
Nesolimnas Andrews,1896,Novitates Zoologicae,3,pp.260,266.Type,by monotypy,Rallus dieffenbachii G.R.Gray,1843. (= Hypotaenidea)
The entry on brackets indicates that this is a synonym of the subgeneric name Hypotaenidea.

Note that such searches will not infrequently produce more than one result. This will include cases where a name was originally cited as a Nomen nudum (that is, no type species was designated), and later cited with a valid type species. It will also include cases of Homonyms, where the later name will be marked “Not….”.

If you have any further queries, please email jpenhall@bigpond.net.au