English Name Scientific Name German Name Spanish Name
Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybrida Weißbart-Seeschwalbe Fumarel Cariblanco
White-winged Tern Chlidonias leucopterus Weißflügel-Seeschwalbe Fumarel Aliblanco
Black Tern Chlidonias niger Trauerseeschwalbe Fumarel Común
Black-fronted Tern@ Chlidonias albostriatus Graubauch-Seeschwalbe Charrán Fumarel
Large-billed Tern Phaetusa simplex Großschnabel-Seeschwalbe Charrán Picudo
Gull-billed Tern Gelochelidon nilotica Lachseeschwalbe Pagaza Piconegra
Caspian Tern Hydroprogne caspia Raubseeschwalbe Pagaza Piquirroja
River Tern Sterna aurantia Hinduseeschwalbe Charrán Indio
South American Tern Sterna hirundinacea Falklandseeschwalbe Charrán Suramericano
Common Tern Sterna hirundo Flußseeschwalbe Charrán Común
Arctic Tern Sterna paradisaea Küstenseeschwalbe Charrán Artico
Antarctic Tern Sterna vittata Antarktikseeschwalbe Charrán Antártico
Kerguelen Tern Sterna virgata Kerguelenseeschwalbe Charrán de Las Kerguelen
Forster's Tern Sterna forsteri Forsterseeschwalbe Charrán de Forster
Snowy-crowned Tern Sterna trudeaui Weißscheitel-Seeschwalbe Charrán Coroniblanco
Roseate Tern Sterna dougallii Rosenseeschwalbe Charrán Rosado
White-fronted Tern Sterna striata Weißstirn-Seeschwalbe Charrán Maori
White-cheeked Tern Sterna repressa Weißwangen-Seeschwalbe Charrán Arábigo
Black-naped Tern Sterna sumatrana Schwarznacken-Seeschwalbe Charrán de Sumatra
Black-bellied Tern Sterna acuticauda Schwarzbauch-Seeschwalbe Charrán Ventinegro
Aleutian Tern Onychoprion aleuticus Aleutenseeschwalbe Charrán Aleutiano
Grey-backed Tern Onychoprion lunatus Brillenseeschwalbe Charrán lunado
Bridled Tern Onychoprion anaethetus Zügelseeschwalbe Charrán Embridado
Sooty Tern Onychoprion fuscatus Rußseeschwalbe Charrán Sombrío
Fairy Tern Sternula nereis Australseeschwalbe Charrancito Australiano
Yellow-billed Tern Sternula superciliaris Amazonasseeschwalbe Charrancito Amazónico
Damara Tern Sternula balaenarum Damaraseeschwalbe Charrancito de Damara
Peruvian Tern Sternula lorata Peruseeschwalbe Charrancito Peruano
Little Tern Sternula albifrons Zwergseeschwalbe Charrancito Común
Saunders's Tern Sternula saundersi Orientseeschwalbe Charrancito de Saunders
Least Tern Sternula antillarum Amerikanische Zwergseeschwalbe Charrancito Americano
Greater Crested-Tern Thalasseus bergii Eilseeschwalbe Charrán Piquigualdo
Royal Tern Thalasseus maximus Königseeschwalbe Charrán Real
Lesser Crested-Tern Thalasseus bengalensis Rüppellseeschwalbe Charrán Bengali
Chinese Crested-Tern Thalasseus bernsteini Bernsteinseeschwalbe Charrán Chino
Elegant Tern Thalasseus elegans Schmuckseeschwalbe Charrán Elegante
Sandwich Tern Thalasseus sandvicensis Brandseeschwalbe Charrán Patinegro
Inca Tern Larosterna inca Inkaseeschwalbe Charrán Inca
Blue Noddy Procelsterna cerulea Blaunoddi Tiñosa Azulada
Grey Noddy Procelsterna albivitta Graunoddi Tiñosa Gris
Brown Noddy Anous stolidus Noddi Tiñosa Boba
Lesser Noddy Anous tenuirostris Schlankschnabelnoddi Tiñosa Picofina
Black Noddy Anous minutus Weißkopfnoddi Tiñosa Menuda
White Tern Gygis alba Feenseeschwalbe Charrán Blanco

Help with Searching

My work on birds is carried out in a huge database, where I can have all records open at once. However, converting details on over 10,000 species of birds at once into html is not possible, so the information in my database can be accessed via a search engine, or by going to a family group.

Here is some advice on searching. You may like to try the examples cited below to get experience with searching.

You can search on Scientific Name (for example, “Rallus longirostris”); or on English Name (for example, “Clapper Rail”); or on French Name “Râle gris”; or German Name (for example, “Klapperralle”); or Spanish Name (for example “Rascón Piquilargo”). You can search on only one of these at a time. If the search finds a unique match, it will display full details of the species. Note that some of the fields, which may contain large amounts of information, require you to click on a “Click to see full text” to view the information in a separate window.

If the search finds more than one match, it will display all species that match the search term. For example, if you type just “Rallus” against Scientific Name, the detail of all birds in the genus Rallus will be displayed. You are warned against typing a search term that will produce hundreds of records, such as “Flycatcher” under English Name, as the resulting list may overwhelm your computer’s memory.

If you enter a search term under English Synonym ( for example, “Little Cassowary”), if the search finds a unique match, it will display the details of the species to which this name relates (in this case “Dwarf Cassowary” Casuarius bennettii). If the search term finds more than one match among English Synonyms, it will display all species that have a match with the search term ( for example, try just “Cassowary”. This will list all species that have an English synonym that includes the word “Cassowary”.)

You can also search by Scientific Synonym. For example, if you type “Scolopax obscura”, the following record will be displayed:
Scolopax obscura S.G.Gmelin,1784,Reise durch Russland zur Untersuchung der drey Reiche,3,p.90,pl.17. (Shore of Caspian Sea). (= R.a.aquaticus)

The search may retrieve more than one record. For example, if you search for “Rallus gularis”, you will get both the following records:
Rallus gularis Horsfield,1821,Transactions of the Linnaean Society of London,13,pt.1,p.196.(Java.), which is the basis of Gallirallus striatus gularis; and
Rallus gularis Lesson(ex Cuvier MS),”1831”,Traité d'Ornithologie(1830),p.536. (Madagascar). Not Rallus gularis of Horsfield,1821. (= D.c.cuvieri), which is a synonym, though not available because it is pre-occupied, of Dryolimnas cuvieri cuvieri.

Of course if you use a single word as a search term, such as “Hypotaenidia”, your search will produce all synonyms containing this term.

You should be aware that I have reproduced exactly the name as it was cited by the original author. For example, Gallirallus was originally proposed by Lafresnaye,1841 as “Galli-rallus”. And the ligature “æ” was widely used before the twentieth century, as in “Anser cærulescens Bonnaterre,1790”.
I am in the process of going through my file and replacing all instances of spelling which deviate from the modern spelling with, for example, “Gallirallus [as Galli-rallus] Lafresnaye,1841”.
Another problem is that where a citation has abbreviated the name, the abbreviated portions of the name are reproduced in brackets. For example, in G. R. Gray, 1844-49, the genus was abbreviated to the first letter; thus we find C[achinna] herpetotheres.

If you enter a term under Generic Name, if a unique match is found, it should display a single record. For example, if you enter “Rallus”, the following will be displayed:
Rallus Linnaeus,1758,Systema Naturae....editio decima,tom.1,pars 1,p.153.Type,by subsequent designation (Fleming,1821,Memoirs of the Wernerian Natural History Society,3,p.176.),Rallus aquaticus Linnaeus,1758.

Note that this is case-sensitive, for example if you type Rallus, the citation for “Gallirallus” will not be displayed, nor that for “Laterallus”.

Since my checklist is extensively annotated, this search will also display any notes that apply to a generic name. For example, if you searched for “Lyrurus”, the following will be produced:
Lyrurus Swainson,”1831”,in Swainson & Richardson,Fauna Boreali-Americana,2(1832),p.497.Type,by original designation,Tetrao tetrix Linnaeus,1758.
Note!:Madge & McGowan,2002,Pheasants,Partridges and Grouse,p.368 resurrect Lyrurus as a genus:"Though often absorbed within Tetrao,the two species of black grouse form a distinctive pair...both Lyrurus have quite ornate,peculiarly twisted tails and
(ctd!) indulge in communal lekking, which differs considerably from the often solitary "popping" of forest-living capercaillies."

Searching for a Subgeneric name is similar. For example, if you enter “Tricholimnas”, you will get:
Tricholimnas Sharpe,1893,Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club,1,p.28.Type,by original designation,Tricholimnas lafresnayanus (Verreaux) = Gallirallus lafresnayanus J. Verreaux & Des Murs,1860.
And as is usual with subgeneric names, a following note:
Note>:Tricholimnas contains only G.lafresnayanus.

Finally, you can search on Generic or Subgeneric Synonym. If you type “Nesolimnas”, you will get:
Nesolimnas Andrews,1896,Novitates Zoologicae,3,pp.260,266.Type,by monotypy,Rallus dieffenbachii G.R.Gray,1843. (= Hypotaenidea)
The entry on brackets indicates that this is a synonym of the subgeneric name Hypotaenidea.

Note that such searches will not infrequently produce more than one result. This will include cases where a name was originally cited as a Nomen nudum (that is, no type species was designated), and later cited with a valid type species. It will also include cases of Homonyms, where the later name will be marked “Not….”.

If you have any further queries, please email jpenhall@bigpond.net.au