English Name Scientific Name German Name Spanish Name
Rufous-winged Sunbird@ Cyanomitra rufipennis
Shelley's Sunbird Chalcomitra shelleyi Scharlachbrust-Nektarvogel
Marico Sunbird Chalcomitra mariquensis Bindennektarvogel
Common Purple-banded Sunbird Chalcomitra mariquensis Porphyrnektarvogel Suimanga Bandeado
Pemba Sunbird@ Chalcomitra pembae Veilchenbrust-Nektarvogel
Violet-breasted Sunbird Chalcomitra chalcomelas
Splendid Sunbird Cinnyris coccinigastrus Rotbauch-Nektarvogel
Red-chested Sunbird Chalcomitra erythrocerca Schmucknektarvogel
Congo Sunbird@ Chalcomitra congensis Kongonektarvogel
Beautiful Sunbird Chalcomitra pulchella Elfennektarvogel
Black-bellied Sunbird Chalcomitra nectarinioides Mennigbrust-Nektarvogel
Madagascar Green Sunbird Chalcomitra notata Stahlnektarvogel
Johanna's Sunbird Cinnyris johannae Grünscheitel-Nektarvogel
Superb Sunbird Cinnyris superbus Prachtnektarvogel
Grey-hooded Sunbird@ Aethopyga primigenia Graukehl-Nektarvogel
Apo Sunbird@ Aethopyga boltoni Mindanaonektarvogel
Lina's Sunbird@ Aethopyga linaborae
Flaming Sunbird@ Aethopyga flagrans Feuerbrust-Nektarvogel
Metallic-winged Sunbird@ Aethopyga pulcherrima Glanzflügel-Nektarvogel
Elegant Sunbird@ Aethopyga duyvenbodei Sangihenektarvogel
Lovely Sunbird@ Aethopyga shelleyi Goldkehl-Nektarvogel
Gould's Sunbird Aethopyga gouldiae Gouldnektarvogel
Green-tailed Sunbird Aethopyga nipalensis Grünschwanz-Nektarvogel
White-flanked Sunbird@ Aethopyga eximia Kavan
Fork-tailed Sunbird Aethopyga christinae Javanektarvogel
Black-throated Sunbird Aethopyga saturata Schwarzkehl-Nektarvogel
Crimson Sunbird Aethopyga siparaja Karmesinnektarvogel Suimanga siparaja
Scarlet Sunbird@ Aethopyga mystacalis Scharlachnektarvogel
Temminck's Sunbird Aethopyga temminckii
Fire-tailed Sunbird Aethopyga ignicauda Feuerschwanz-Nektarvogel
Flame-breasted Sunbird@ Cyrtostomus solaris Sonnennektarvogel
Purple Sunbird Arachnechthra asiatica Purpurnektarvogel
Madagascan Sunbird Cinnyris sovimanga Malegassennektarvogel
Humblot's Sunbird@ Cinnyris humbloti Schlichtmantel-Nektarvogel
Anjouan Sunbird@ Cinnyris comorensis Anjouannektarvogel
Mayotte Sunbird@ Cinnyris coquerellii Mayottenektarvogel
Variable Sunbird Cinnyris venustus Ziernektarvogel
Ursula's Sunbird Cinnyris ursulae
White-breasted Sunbird Cinnyris talatala Weißbauch-Nektarvogel
Oustalet's Sunbird Cinnyris oustaleti Angolanektarvogel
Dusky Sunbird Cinnyris fuscus Rußnektarvogel
Miombo Double-collared Sunbird Anthobaphes manoensis Miombonektarvogel
Southern Double-collared Sunbird@ Anthobaphes chalybeus Halsbandnektarvogel
Montane Double-collared Sunbird@ Anthobaphes ludovicensis
Stuhlmann's Double-collared Sunbird Anthobaphes stuhlmanni
Prigogine's Double-collared Sunbird Anthobaphes prigoginei Marungunektarvogel
Greater Double-collared Sunbird@ Anthobaphes afer Doppelband-Nektarvogel
Eastern Double-collared Sunbird Anthobaphes mediocris Füllebornnektarvogel
Northern Double-collared Sunbird Anthobaphes reichenowi Preussnektarvogel
Neergaard's Sunbird Anthobaphes neergaardi Neergaardnektarvogel
Eastern Olive-bellied Sunbird Chalcomitra chloropygia Olivbauch-Nektarvogel
Tiny Sunbird Chalcomitra minulla Zwergnektarvogel
Regal Sunbird Anthobaphes regius Königsnektarvogel
Loveridge's Sunbird@ Anthobaphes loveridgei Orangebauch-Nektarvogel
Moreau's Sunbird@ Anthobaphes moreaui Moreaunektarvogel
Rockefeller's Sunbird@ Anthobaphes rockefelleri Blutbrust-Nektarvogel
Shining Sunbird Cinnyris habessinicus Glanznektarvogel
Orange-tufted Sunbird Cinnyris bouvieri Bouviernektarvogel
Palestine Sunbird Cinnyris osea Jerichonektarvogel
Copper Sunbird Chalcomitra cuprea Kupfernektarvogel
Mouse-brown Sunbird Hedydipna gabonica Gabunnektarvogel
Plain-backed Sunbird Hedydipna reichenowi Blaukehl-Nektarvogel
Anchieta's Sunbird Hedydipna anchietae Buntbauch-Nektarvogel
Plain Sunbird Anthreptes simplex Schlichtnektarvogel
Brown-throated Sunbird Anthreptes malacensis Braunkehl-Nektarvogel
Red-throated Sunbird Anthreptes rhodolaemus Rotkehl-Nektarvogel
Western Violet-backed Sunbird Hedydipna longuemarei Violettmantel-Nektarvogel
Kenya Violet-backed Sunbird Hedydipna orientalis Schwalbennektarvogel
Uluguru Violet-backed Sunbird Hedydipna neglecta Ulugurunektarvogel
Violet-tailed Sunbird Hedydipna aurantia Violettschwanz-Nektarvogel
Little Green Sunbird Deleornis seimundi Stutzschwanz-Nektarvogel
Green Sunbird Deleornis rectirostris Goldband-Nektarvogel
Banded Sunbird@ Deleornis rubritorques Rotband-Nektarvogel
Collared Sunbird Anthodiaeta collaris Waldnektarvogel
Pygmy Sunbird Hedydipna platura Grünbrust-Nektarvogel
Nile Valley Sunbird Hedydipna metallica
Amani Sunbird Hedydipna pallidigaster Amaninektarvogel
Reichenbach's Sunbird Anabathmis reichenbachii Reichenbachnektarvogel
Principe Sunbird@ Anabathmis hartlaubii Hartlaubnektarvogel
Newton's Sunbird@ Anabathmis newtonii Gelbbrust-Nektarvogel
Sao Tome Sunbird@ Cinnyris thomensis Riesennektarvogel
Orange-breasted Sunbird@ Anthobaphes violaceus Goldbrust-Nektarvogel
Eastern Olive Sunbird Nectarinia olivacea Olivnektarvogel
Mouse-colored Sunbird Nectarinia veroxii Graunektarvogel
Cameroon Sunbird Cyanomitra oritis Blaukopf-Nektarvogel
Blue-headed Sunbird Cyanomitra alinae Ruwenzorinektarvogel
Bannerman's Sunbird Cyanomitra bannermani Bannermannektarvogel
Socotra Sunbird@ Cinnyris balfouri Sokotranektarvogel
Green-headed Sunbird Cyanomitra verticalis Grünkopf-Nektarvogel
Blue-throated Brown Sunbird Cyanomitra cyanolaema Braunrücken-Nektarvogel
Carmelite Sunbird Chalcomitra fuliginosa Karmelglanzköpfchen
Green-throated Sunbird Chalcomitra rubescens Grünkehl-Glanzköpfchen
Amethyst Sunbird Chalcomitra amethystina Amethystglanzköpfchen
Scarlet-chested Sunbird Chalcomitra senegalensis Rotbrust-Glanzköpfchen
Hunter's Sunbird Chalcomitra hunteri Purpurbürzel-Glanzköpfchen
Buff-throated Sunbird Chalcomitra adelberti Fahlkehl-Glanzköpfchen
Purple-rumped Sunbird Leptocoma zeylonica Ceylonnektarvogel
Crimson-backed Sunbird@ Leptocoma minima Däumlingsnektarvogel
Purple-throated Sunbird Leptocoma sperata Purpurkehl-Nektarvogel
Black Sunbird Leptocoma sericea Seidennektarvogel
Copper-throated Sunbird Leptocoma calcostetha Kupferkehl-Nektarvogel
Tacazze Sunbird Chalcomitra tacazze Tacazzenektarvogel
Bocage's Sunbird Chalcomitra bocagii Bocagenektarvogel
Purple-breasted Sunbird Chalcomitra purpureiventris Purpurbauch-Nektarvogel
Malachite Sunbird Nectarinia famosa Malachitnektarvogel
Red-tufted Sunbird Nectarinia johnstoni Lobeliennektarvogel
Bronze Sunbird Chalcomitra kilimensis Bronzenektarvogel
Golden-winged Sunbird Cyanomitra reichenowi Goldschwingen-Nektarvogel
Bates's Sunbird Deleornis batesi Einfarb-Nektarvogel
Seychelles Sunbird@ Cinnyris dussumieri Seychellennektarvogel
Long-billed Sunbird Arachnethra lotenia Lotosnektarvogel
Olive-backed Sunbird Cyrtostomus jugularis Grünrücken-Nektarvogel
Apricot-breasted Sunbird@ Cyrtostomus buettikoferi Sumbanektarvogel
Van Hasselt's Sunbird Leptocoma brasilana Hasselt-Nektarvogel Suimanga de Hasselt
Handsome Sunbird@ Aethopyga bella
Grey-throated Sunbird Anthreptes griseigularis Graukehl-Nektarvogel Suimanga Gorjigrís

Help with Searching

My work on birds is carried out in a huge database, where I can have all records open at once. However, converting details on over 10,000 species of birds at once into html is not possible, so the information in my database can be accessed via a search engine, or by going to a family group.

Here is some advice on searching. You may like to try the examples cited below to get experience with searching.

You can search on Scientific Name (for example, “Rallus longirostris”); or on English Name (for example, “Clapper Rail”); or on French Name “Râle gris”; or German Name (for example, “Klapperralle”); or Spanish Name (for example “Rascón Piquilargo”). You can search on only one of these at a time. If the search finds a unique match, it will display full details of the species. Note that some of the fields, which may contain large amounts of information, require you to click on a “Click to see full text” to view the information in a separate window.

If the search finds more than one match, it will display all species that match the search term. For example, if you type just “Rallus” against Scientific Name, the detail of all birds in the genus Rallus will be displayed. You are warned against typing a search term that will produce hundreds of records, such as “Flycatcher” under English Name, as the resulting list may overwhelm your computer’s memory.

If you enter a search term under English Synonym ( for example, “Little Cassowary”), if the search finds a unique match, it will display the details of the species to which this name relates (in this case “Dwarf Cassowary” Casuarius bennettii). If the search term finds more than one match among English Synonyms, it will display all species that have a match with the search term ( for example, try just “Cassowary”. This will list all species that have an English synonym that includes the word “Cassowary”.)

You can also search by Scientific Synonym. For example, if you type “Scolopax obscura”, the following record will be displayed:
Scolopax obscura S.G.Gmelin,1784,Reise durch Russland zur Untersuchung der drey Reiche,3,p.90,pl.17. (Shore of Caspian Sea). (= R.a.aquaticus)

The search may retrieve more than one record. For example, if you search for “Rallus gularis”, you will get both the following records:
Rallus gularis Horsfield,1821,Transactions of the Linnaean Society of London,13,pt.1,p.196.(Java.), which is the basis of Gallirallus striatus gularis; and
Rallus gularis Lesson(ex Cuvier MS),”1831”,Traité d'Ornithologie(1830),p.536. (Madagascar). Not Rallus gularis of Horsfield,1821. (= D.c.cuvieri), which is a synonym, though not available because it is pre-occupied, of Dryolimnas cuvieri cuvieri.

Of course if you use a single word as a search term, such as “Hypotaenidia”, your search will produce all synonyms containing this term.

You should be aware that I have reproduced exactly the name as it was cited by the original author. For example, Gallirallus was originally proposed by Lafresnaye,1841 as “Galli-rallus”. And the ligature “æ” was widely used before the twentieth century, as in “Anser cærulescens Bonnaterre,1790”.
I am in the process of going through my file and replacing all instances of spelling which deviate from the modern spelling with, for example, “Gallirallus [as Galli-rallus] Lafresnaye,1841”.
Another problem is that where a citation has abbreviated the name, the abbreviated portions of the name are reproduced in brackets. For example, in G. R. Gray, 1844-49, the genus was abbreviated to the first letter; thus we find C[achinna] herpetotheres.

If you enter a term under Generic Name, if a unique match is found, it should display a single record. For example, if you enter “Rallus”, the following will be displayed:
Rallus Linnaeus,1758,Systema Naturae....editio decima,tom.1,pars 1,p.153.Type,by subsequent designation (Fleming,1821,Memoirs of the Wernerian Natural History Society,3,p.176.),Rallus aquaticus Linnaeus,1758.

Note that this is case-sensitive, for example if you type Rallus, the citation for “Gallirallus” will not be displayed, nor that for “Laterallus”.

Since my checklist is extensively annotated, this search will also display any notes that apply to a generic name. For example, if you searched for “Lyrurus”, the following will be produced:
Lyrurus Swainson,”1831”,in Swainson & Richardson,Fauna Boreali-Americana,2(1832),p.497.Type,by original designation,Tetrao tetrix Linnaeus,1758.
Note!:Madge & McGowan,2002,Pheasants,Partridges and Grouse,p.368 resurrect Lyrurus as a genus:"Though often absorbed within Tetrao,the two species of black grouse form a distinctive pair...both Lyrurus have quite ornate,peculiarly twisted tails and
(ctd!) indulge in communal lekking, which differs considerably from the often solitary "popping" of forest-living capercaillies."

Searching for a Subgeneric name is similar. For example, if you enter “Tricholimnas”, you will get:
Tricholimnas Sharpe,1893,Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club,1,p.28.Type,by original designation,Tricholimnas lafresnayanus (Verreaux) = Gallirallus lafresnayanus J. Verreaux & Des Murs,1860.
And as is usual with subgeneric names, a following note:
Note>:Tricholimnas contains only G.lafresnayanus.

Finally, you can search on Generic or Subgeneric Synonym. If you type “Nesolimnas”, you will get:
Nesolimnas Andrews,1896,Novitates Zoologicae,3,pp.260,266.Type,by monotypy,Rallus dieffenbachii G.R.Gray,1843. (= Hypotaenidea)
The entry on brackets indicates that this is a synonym of the subgeneric name Hypotaenidea.

Note that such searches will not infrequently produce more than one result. This will include cases where a name was originally cited as a Nomen nudum (that is, no type species was designated), and later cited with a valid type species. It will also include cases of Homonyms, where the later name will be marked “Not….”.

If you have any further queries, please email jpenhall@bigpond.net.au