English Name Scientific Name German Name Spanish Name
Blue-headed Macaw Primolius couloni Blaukopfara Guacamayo Cabeciazul
Red-shouldered Macaw Diopsittaca nobilis Zwergara Guacamayo Noble
Spix'sMacaw@ Cyanopsitta spixii Spixara Guacamayo de Spix
Golden Parakeet@ Guaruba guarouba Goldsittich Guacamayo Guarouba
Blue-crowned Parakeet Thectocercus acuticaudatus Spitzschwanzsittich Aratinga Cabeciazul
Green Parakeet Psittacara holochlora Grünsittich Aratinga Verde
Socorro Parakeet@ Psittacara brevipes Socorrosittich Aratinga de Socorro
Red-throated Parakeet Psittacara rubritorquis Rotkehlsittich Aratinga Gorgirroja
Finsch's Parakeet Psittacara finschi Veraguasittich Aratinga de Finsch
Scarlet-fronted Parakeet Psittacara wagleri Columbiasittich Aratinga de Wagler
Mitred Parakeet Psittacara mitrata Rotmaskensittich Aratinga Mitrada
Red-masked Parakeet Psittacara erythrogenys Guayaquilsittich Aratinga de Guayaquil
White-eyed Parakeet Psittacara leucophthalma Pavuasittich Aratinga Ojiblanca
Hispaniolan Parakeet Psittacara chloroptera Haitisittich Aratinga de la Española
Cuban Parakeet@ Psittacara euops Kubasittich Aratinga cubana
Golden-capped Parakeet@ Aratinga auricapillus Goldkopfsittich Aratinga Testadorada
Jandaya Parakeet@ Aratinga jandaya Jendayasittich Aratinga Jandaya
Sun Parakeet Aratinga solstitialis Sonnensittich Aratinga Sol
Dusky-headed Parakeet Aratinga weddellii Weddellsittich Aratinga Cabecifusca
Aztec Parakeet Eupsittula astec Aztekenzittich Aratinga azteco
Olive-throated Parakeet@ Eupsittula nana Jamaikasittich Aratinga Pechisucia
Orange-fronted Parakeet Eupsittula canicularis Elfenbeinsittich Aratinga Frentinaranja
Brown-throated Parakeet Eupsittula pertinax Braunwangensittich Aratinga Pertinaz
Caatinga Parakeet@ Euspittula cactorum Kaktussittich Aratinga Cactácea
Peach-fronted Parakeet Eupsittula aurea Goldstirnsittich Aratinga Frentidorada
Guadeloupe Parakeet@+ Eupsittula labati
Nanday Parakeet Aratinga nenday Nandaysittich Aratinga Ñanday
Golden-plumed Parrot Leptosittaca branickii Pinselsittich Aratinga de Pinceles
Carolina Parakeet@+ Conuropsis carolinensis
Thick-billed Parrot@ Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha Kiefernsittich Cotorra Serrana Occidental
Maroon-fronted Parrot@ Rhynchopsitta terrisi Maronenstirnsittich Cotorra Serrana Oriental
Burrowing Parakeet Cyanoliseus patagonus Felsensittich Loro Barranquero
Yellow-eared Parrot Ognorhynchus icterotis Gelbohrsittich Aratinga Orejigualda
Ochre-Marked Parakeet@ Pyrrhura cruentata Blaulatzsittich Cotorra Tiriba
Blaze-winged Parakeet Pyrrhura devillei Devillesittich Cotorra de Deville
Maroon-bellied Parakeet Pyrrhura frontalis Braunohrsittich Cotorra Chiripepé
Pearly Parakeet@ Pyrrhura lepida Blausteißsittich Cotorra Pulcra
Crimson-bellied Parakeet Pyrrhura perlata Rotbauchsittich Cotorra Ventirroja
Green-cheeked Parakeet Pyrrhura molinae Molinasittich Cotorra de Molina
Blood-eared Parakeet@ Pyrrhura hoematotis Blutohrsittich Cotorra Colirroja
Azuero Parakeet@ Pyrrhura eisenmanni
Todd's Parakeet Pyrrhura caeruleiceps Perico de Perijá
Sinu Parakeet@ Pyrrhura subandina
Venezuelan Parakeet@ Pyrrhura emma
Pfrimer's Parakeet@ Pyrrhura pfrimeri
Grey-breasted Parakeet@ Pyrrhura griseipectus
White-eared Parakeet@ Pyrrhura leucotis Weißohrsittich Cotorra Cariparda
Painted Parakeet Pyrrhura picta Rotzügelsittich Cotorra Pintada
Rose-fronted Parakeet Pyrrhura roseifrons Rotscheitelsittich
Deville's Parakeet@ Pyrrhura lucianii
Santarem Parakeet@ Pyrrhura amazonum
Wavy-breasted Parakeet@ Pyrrhura peruviana Wellenbrustsittich Cotorra Peruana
Santa Marta Parakeet@ Pyrrhura viridicata Santa-Marta-Sittich Cotorra de Santa Marta
Fiery-shouldered Parakeet Pyrrhura egregia Feuerbugsittich Cotorra Egregia
Maroon-tailed Parakeet Pyrrhura melanura Braunschwanzsittich Cotorra Colinegra
El Oro Parakeet@ Pyrrhura orcesi Orcessittich Cotorra de El Oro
Black-capped Parakeet Pyrrhura rupicola Schwarzkappensittich Cotorra Capirotada
White-necked Parakeet@ Pyrrhura albipectus Weißhalssittich Cotorra Cuelliblanca
Flame-winged Parakeet@ Pyrrhura calliptera Braunbrustsittich Cotorra Pechiparda
Rose-crowned Parakeet@ Pyrrhura rhodocephala Rotkopfsittich Cotorra Coronirroja
Hyacinth Macaw Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus Hyathinzara Guacamayo Jacinto
Glaucous Macaw+ Anodorhynchus glaucus Türkisara Guacamayo Glauco
Guadeloupe Violet Macaw+ Anodorhynchus purpurascens
Lear's Macaw@ Anodorhynchus leari Learara Guacamayo de Lear
Blue-and-yellow Macaw Ara ararauna Ararauna Guacamayo Azulamarillo
Blue-throated Macaw@ Ara glaucogularis Blaukehlara Guacamayo Barbazul
Military Macaw Ara militaris Soldatenara Guacamayo Militar
Great Green Macaw Ara ambiguus Bechsteinara Guacamayo Ambiguo
Scarlet Macaw Ara macao Arakanga Guacamayo Macao
Red-and-green Macaw Ara chloropterus Grünflügelara Guacamayo Aliverde
Cuban Macaw@+ Ara tricolor
Jamaican Macaw@+ Ara gossei
Red-fronted Macaw@ Ara rubrogenys Rotohrara Guacamayo de Cochabamba
Chestnut-fronted Macaw Ara severus Rotbugara Guacamayo Severo
Red-bellied Macaw Orthopsittaca manilata Rotbauchara Guacamayo Ventrirrojo
Yellow-collared Macaw Primolius auricollis Halsbandara Guacamayo Acollarado
Blue-winged Macaw Primolius maracana Maracana Guacamayo Maracaná
Red-fan Parrot Deroptyus accipitrinus Fächerpapagei Loro Cacique
Black-headed Parrot Pionites melanocephalus Grünzügelpapagei Lorito Chirlicrés
White-bellied Parrot Pionites leucogaster Rostkappenpapagei Lorito Rubio
Sulphur-winged Parakeet Pyrrhura hoffmanni Hoffmannsittich Cotorra Catana
Austral Parakeet Enicognathus ferrugineus Smaragdsittich Cotorra Cachaña
Slender-billed Parakeet@ Enicognathus leptorhynchus Langschnabelsittich Cotorra Choroy
Choco Parakeet Pyrrhura pacifica
Garlepp's Parakeet@ Pyrrhura parvifrons Garleppsittich Cotorra de Garlepp
Hocking's Parakeet Psittacara chlorogenys Hockingsittich Aratinga de Hocking
Madeira Parakeet Pyrrhura snethlageae Rio-Madeira-Sittich Cotorra del Madeira
Pacific Parakeet Psittacara strenua Pazifiksittich Aratinga del Pacifico

Help with Searching

My work on birds is carried out in a huge database, where I can have all records open at once. However, converting details on over 10,000 species of birds at once into html is not possible, so the information in my database can be accessed via a search engine, or by going to a family group.

Here is some advice on searching. You may like to try the examples cited below to get experience with searching.

You can search on Scientific Name (for example, “Rallus longirostris”); or on English Name (for example, “Clapper Rail”); or on French Name “Râle gris”; or German Name (for example, “Klapperralle”); or Spanish Name (for example “Rascón Piquilargo”). You can search on only one of these at a time. If the search finds a unique match, it will display full details of the species. Note that some of the fields, which may contain large amounts of information, require you to click on a “Click to see full text” to view the information in a separate window.

If the search finds more than one match, it will display all species that match the search term. For example, if you type just “Rallus” against Scientific Name, the detail of all birds in the genus Rallus will be displayed. You are warned against typing a search term that will produce hundreds of records, such as “Flycatcher” under English Name, as the resulting list may overwhelm your computer’s memory.

If you enter a search term under English Synonym ( for example, “Little Cassowary”), if the search finds a unique match, it will display the details of the species to which this name relates (in this case “Dwarf Cassowary” Casuarius bennettii). If the search term finds more than one match among English Synonyms, it will display all species that have a match with the search term ( for example, try just “Cassowary”. This will list all species that have an English synonym that includes the word “Cassowary”.)

You can also search by Scientific Synonym. For example, if you type “Scolopax obscura”, the following record will be displayed:
Scolopax obscura S.G.Gmelin,1784,Reise durch Russland zur Untersuchung der drey Reiche,3,p.90,pl.17. (Shore of Caspian Sea). (= R.a.aquaticus)

The search may retrieve more than one record. For example, if you search for “Rallus gularis”, you will get both the following records:
Rallus gularis Horsfield,1821,Transactions of the Linnaean Society of London,13,pt.1,p.196.(Java.), which is the basis of Gallirallus striatus gularis; and
Rallus gularis Lesson(ex Cuvier MS),”1831”,Traité d'Ornithologie(1830),p.536. (Madagascar). Not Rallus gularis of Horsfield,1821. (= D.c.cuvieri), which is a synonym, though not available because it is pre-occupied, of Dryolimnas cuvieri cuvieri.

Of course if you use a single word as a search term, such as “Hypotaenidia”, your search will produce all synonyms containing this term.

You should be aware that I have reproduced exactly the name as it was cited by the original author. For example, Gallirallus was originally proposed by Lafresnaye,1841 as “Galli-rallus”. And the ligature “æ” was widely used before the twentieth century, as in “Anser cærulescens Bonnaterre,1790”.
I am in the process of going through my file and replacing all instances of spelling which deviate from the modern spelling with, for example, “Gallirallus [as Galli-rallus] Lafresnaye,1841”.
Another problem is that where a citation has abbreviated the name, the abbreviated portions of the name are reproduced in brackets. For example, in G. R. Gray, 1844-49, the genus was abbreviated to the first letter; thus we find C[achinna] herpetotheres.

If you enter a term under Generic Name, if a unique match is found, it should display a single record. For example, if you enter “Rallus”, the following will be displayed:
Rallus Linnaeus,1758,Systema Naturae....editio decima,tom.1,pars 1,p.153.Type,by subsequent designation (Fleming,1821,Memoirs of the Wernerian Natural History Society,3,p.176.),Rallus aquaticus Linnaeus,1758.

Note that this is case-sensitive, for example if you type Rallus, the citation for “Gallirallus” will not be displayed, nor that for “Laterallus”.

Since my checklist is extensively annotated, this search will also display any notes that apply to a generic name. For example, if you searched for “Lyrurus”, the following will be produced:
Lyrurus Swainson,”1831”,in Swainson & Richardson,Fauna Boreali-Americana,2(1832),p.497.Type,by original designation,Tetrao tetrix Linnaeus,1758.
Note!:Madge & McGowan,2002,Pheasants,Partridges and Grouse,p.368 resurrect Lyrurus as a genus:"Though often absorbed within Tetrao,the two species of black grouse form a distinctive pair...both Lyrurus have quite ornate,peculiarly twisted tails and
(ctd!) indulge in communal lekking, which differs considerably from the often solitary "popping" of forest-living capercaillies."

Searching for a Subgeneric name is similar. For example, if you enter “Tricholimnas”, you will get:
Tricholimnas Sharpe,1893,Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club,1,p.28.Type,by original designation,Tricholimnas lafresnayanus (Verreaux) = Gallirallus lafresnayanus J. Verreaux & Des Murs,1860.
And as is usual with subgeneric names, a following note:
Note>:Tricholimnas contains only G.lafresnayanus.

Finally, you can search on Generic or Subgeneric Synonym. If you type “Nesolimnas”, you will get:
Nesolimnas Andrews,1896,Novitates Zoologicae,3,pp.260,266.Type,by monotypy,Rallus dieffenbachii G.R.Gray,1843. (= Hypotaenidea)
The entry on brackets indicates that this is a synonym of the subgeneric name Hypotaenidea.

Note that such searches will not infrequently produce more than one result. This will include cases where a name was originally cited as a Nomen nudum (that is, no type species was designated), and later cited with a valid type species. It will also include cases of Homonyms, where the later name will be marked “Not….”.

If you have any further queries, please email jpenhall@bigpond.net.au