English Name Scientific Name German Name Spanish Name
Grey-throated Toucanet Aulacorhynchus griseigularis
Plate-billed Mountain-Toucan Andigena laminirostris Leistenschnabeltukan Tucán Piquiplano
Grey-breasted Mountain-Toucan Andigena hypoglauca Blautukan Tucán Pechigris
Hooded Mountain-Toucan Andigena cucullata Schwarzkopftukan Tucán Encapuchado
Black-billed Mountain-Toucan Andigena nigrirostris Schwarzschnabeltukan Tucán Piquinegro
Channel-billed Toucan Ramphastos vitellinus Dottertukan Tucán Picoacanalado
Red-breasted Toucan Ramphastos dicolorus Bunttukan Tucán Bicolor
Keel-billed Toucan Ramphastos sulfuratus Fischertukan Tucán piquiverde
Chestnut-mandibled Toucan Ramphastos swainsonii Swainsontukan
Choco Toucan Ramphastos brevis Küstentuken Tucán del Chocó
Black-mandibled Toucan Ramphastos ambiguus Goldkehltukan Tucán Pechigualdo
White-throated Toucan Ramphastos tucanus Weißbrusttukan Tucán Pechiblanco
Toco Toucan Ramphastos toco Riesentukan Tucán Toco
Emerald Toucanet Aulacorhynchus prasinus Laucharassari Tucanete Esmeralda
Blue-throated Toucanet Aulacorhynchus caeruleogularis
Violet-throated Toucanet Aulacorhynchus cognatus
White-throated Toucanet Aulacorhynchus albivitta
Santa Marta Toucanet Aulacorhynchus lautus
Black-throated Toucanet Aulacorhynchus atrogularis
Crimson-rumped Toucanet Aulacorhynchus haematopygus Blutbürzelarassari Tucanete Culirrojo
Blue-banded Toucanet Aulacorhynchus coeruleicinctis Grauschnabelarassari Tucanete Pechiazul
Yellow-browed Toucanet@ Aulacorhynchus huallagae Gelbbrauenarassari Tucanete del Huallaga
Collared Aracari Pteroglossus torquatus Halsbandarassari Aracarí Acollarado
Fiery-billed Aracari Pteroglossus frantzii Feuerschnabelarassari Aracarí Piquinaranja
Stripe-billed Aracari Pteroglossus sanguineus
Pale-mandibled Aracari Pteroglossus erythropygius
Chestnut-eared Aracari Pteroglossus castanotis Braunohrarassari Aracarí Caripardo
Black-necked Aracari Pteroglossus aracari Schwarzkehlarassari Arasarí Cuellinegro
Many-banded Aracari Pteroglossus pluricinctus Doppelbindenarassari Arasarí Fajado
Green Aracari Pteroglossus viridis Grünarassari Arasarí Verde
Lettered Aracari Pteroglossus inscriptus Schriftarassari Arasarí Marcado
Red-necked Aracari Pteroglossus bitorquatus Rotnackenarassari Arasarí Cuellirrojo
Ivory-billed Aracari Pteroglossus azara Rotkopfarassari Arasarí de Azara
Curl-crested Aracari Pteroglossus beauharnaesii Krauskopfarassari Arasarí Crespo
Saffron Toucanet@ Pteroglossus bailloni Goldtukan Arasarí Banana
Yellow-eared Toucanet Selenidera spectabilis Gelbohrarassari Tucanete Orejigualdo
Guianan Toucanet Selenidera piperivora Pfefferfresser Tucanete Culik
Golden-collared Toucanet Selenidera reinwardtii Reinwardtarassari Tucanete de Reinwardt
Tawny-tufted Toucanet Selenidera nattereri Nattererarassari Tucanete de Natterer
Gould's Toucanet Selenidera gouldii Gouldarassari Tucanete de Gould
Spot-billed Toucanet Selenidera maculirostris Fleckenarassari Tucanete Piquimaculado
Groove-billed Toucanet Aulacorhynchus sulcatus Blauzügelarassari Tucanete Picosurcado
Chestnut-tipped Toucanet Aulacorhynchus derbianus Derbyarassari Tucanete de Derby
Wagler's Toucanet@ Aulacorhynchus wagleri

Help with Searching

My work on birds is carried out in a huge database, where I can have all records open at once. However, converting details on over 10,000 species of birds at once into html is not possible, so the information in my database can be accessed via a search engine, or by going to a family group.

Here is some advice on searching. You may like to try the examples cited below to get experience with searching.

You can search on Scientific Name (for example, “Rallus longirostris”); or on English Name (for example, “Clapper Rail”); or on French Name “Râle gris”; or German Name (for example, “Klapperralle”); or Spanish Name (for example “Rascón Piquilargo”). You can search on only one of these at a time. If the search finds a unique match, it will display full details of the species. Note that some of the fields, which may contain large amounts of information, require you to click on a “Click to see full text” to view the information in a separate window.

If the search finds more than one match, it will display all species that match the search term. For example, if you type just “Rallus” against Scientific Name, the detail of all birds in the genus Rallus will be displayed. You are warned against typing a search term that will produce hundreds of records, such as “Flycatcher” under English Name, as the resulting list may overwhelm your computer’s memory.

If you enter a search term under English Synonym ( for example, “Little Cassowary”), if the search finds a unique match, it will display the details of the species to which this name relates (in this case “Dwarf Cassowary” Casuarius bennettii). If the search term finds more than one match among English Synonyms, it will display all species that have a match with the search term ( for example, try just “Cassowary”. This will list all species that have an English synonym that includes the word “Cassowary”.)

You can also search by Scientific Synonym. For example, if you type “Scolopax obscura”, the following record will be displayed:
Scolopax obscura S.G.Gmelin,1784,Reise durch Russland zur Untersuchung der drey Reiche,3,p.90,pl.17. (Shore of Caspian Sea). (= R.a.aquaticus)

The search may retrieve more than one record. For example, if you search for “Rallus gularis”, you will get both the following records:
Rallus gularis Horsfield,1821,Transactions of the Linnaean Society of London,13,pt.1,p.196.(Java.), which is the basis of Gallirallus striatus gularis; and
Rallus gularis Lesson(ex Cuvier MS),”1831”,Traité d'Ornithologie(1830),p.536. (Madagascar). Not Rallus gularis of Horsfield,1821. (= D.c.cuvieri), which is a synonym, though not available because it is pre-occupied, of Dryolimnas cuvieri cuvieri.

Of course if you use a single word as a search term, such as “Hypotaenidia”, your search will produce all synonyms containing this term.

You should be aware that I have reproduced exactly the name as it was cited by the original author. For example, Gallirallus was originally proposed by Lafresnaye,1841 as “Galli-rallus”. And the ligature “æ” was widely used before the twentieth century, as in “Anser cærulescens Bonnaterre,1790”.
I am in the process of going through my file and replacing all instances of spelling which deviate from the modern spelling with, for example, “Gallirallus [as Galli-rallus] Lafresnaye,1841”.
Another problem is that where a citation has abbreviated the name, the abbreviated portions of the name are reproduced in brackets. For example, in G. R. Gray, 1844-49, the genus was abbreviated to the first letter; thus we find C[achinna] herpetotheres.

If you enter a term under Generic Name, if a unique match is found, it should display a single record. For example, if you enter “Rallus”, the following will be displayed:
Rallus Linnaeus,1758,Systema Naturae....editio decima,tom.1,pars 1,p.153.Type,by subsequent designation (Fleming,1821,Memoirs of the Wernerian Natural History Society,3,p.176.),Rallus aquaticus Linnaeus,1758.

Note that this is case-sensitive, for example if you type Rallus, the citation for “Gallirallus” will not be displayed, nor that for “Laterallus”.

Since my checklist is extensively annotated, this search will also display any notes that apply to a generic name. For example, if you searched for “Lyrurus”, the following will be produced:
Lyrurus Swainson,”1831”,in Swainson & Richardson,Fauna Boreali-Americana,2(1832),p.497.Type,by original designation,Tetrao tetrix Linnaeus,1758.
Note!:Madge & McGowan,2002,Pheasants,Partridges and Grouse,p.368 resurrect Lyrurus as a genus:"Though often absorbed within Tetrao,the two species of black grouse form a distinctive pair...both Lyrurus have quite ornate,peculiarly twisted tails and
(ctd!) indulge in communal lekking, which differs considerably from the often solitary "popping" of forest-living capercaillies."

Searching for a Subgeneric name is similar. For example, if you enter “Tricholimnas”, you will get:
Tricholimnas Sharpe,1893,Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club,1,p.28.Type,by original designation,Tricholimnas lafresnayanus (Verreaux) = Gallirallus lafresnayanus J. Verreaux & Des Murs,1860.
And as is usual with subgeneric names, a following note:
Note>:Tricholimnas contains only G.lafresnayanus.

Finally, you can search on Generic or Subgeneric Synonym. If you type “Nesolimnas”, you will get:
Nesolimnas Andrews,1896,Novitates Zoologicae,3,pp.260,266.Type,by monotypy,Rallus dieffenbachii G.R.Gray,1843. (= Hypotaenidea)
The entry on brackets indicates that this is a synonym of the subgeneric name Hypotaenidea.

Note that such searches will not infrequently produce more than one result. This will include cases where a name was originally cited as a Nomen nudum (that is, no type species was designated), and later cited with a valid type species. It will also include cases of Homonyms, where the later name will be marked “Not….”.

If you have any further queries, please email jpenhall@bigpond.net.au