English Name Scientific Name German Name Spanish Name
Tufted Coquette Lophornis ornatus Schmuckelfe Coqueta adornada
Dot-eared Coquette Lophornis gouldii Gouldelfe Coqueta Moteada
Frilled Coquette@ Lophornis magnificus Prachtelfe Coqueta Magnifica
Rufous-crested Coquette Lophornis delattrei Rotschopfelfe Coqueta Crestirrufa
Short-crested Coquette@ Lophornis brachylophus Kurzhaubenelfe Coqueta de Guerrero
Spangled Coquette Lophornis stictolophus Glanzelfe Coqueta Coronada
Festive Coquette Lophornis chalybeus Schmetterlingselfe Coqueta Verde
Peacock Coquette Lophornis pavoninus Pfauenelfe Coqueta Pavonina
Black-crested Coquette Lophornis helenae Schwarzschopelfe Coqueta Crestinegra
White-crested Coquette Lophornis adorabilis Weißschopfelfe Coqueta Adorable
Wire-crested Thorntail Discosura popelairii Haubenfadenelfe Rabudito Crestado
Black-bellied Thorntail Discosura langsdorffi Brustband-Fadenelfe Rabudito Ventinegro
Coppery Thorntail@ Discosura letitiae Kupferfadenelfe Rabudito Cobrizo
Green Thorntail Discosura conversii Grüne Fadenelfe Rabudito Verde
Racket-tailed Coquette Discosura longicaudus Diskuselfe Rabudito de Raquetas
Red-tailed Comet Sappho sparganurus Goldschwanzsylphe Colibrí Cometa
Bronze-tailed Comet@ Polyonymus caroli Rosenkehlsylphe Colibrí Colibronce
Purple-backed Thornbill Ramphomicron microrhynchum Purpur Kurzschnabelkolibri Colibrí Piquicorto Común
Black-backed Thornbill@ Ramphomicron dorsale Schwarzer Kurzschnabelkolibri Colibrí Piquicorto Dorsinegro
Black Metaltail@ Metallura phoebe Schwarzbauch-Glanzschwänzen Metalura Negra
Neblina Metaltail Metallura odomae Purpurkehl-Glanzschwänzen Metalura de Chinguela
Coppery Metaltail@ Metallura theresiae Kupferglanzschwänzchen Metalura de Teresa
Scaled Metaltail Metallura aeneocauda Schuppenbauch-Glanzschwänzchen Metalura escamosa
Violet-throated Metaltail@ Metallura baroni Violetkehl-Glanzschwänzchen Metaluta de Azuay
Fire-throated Metaltail@ Metallura eupogon Feuerkehl-Glanzschwänzchen Metalura Barbafuego
Viridian Metaltail Metallura williami Grünes Glanzchwänzchen Metalura Verde
Tyrian Metaltail Metallura tyrianthina Smaragdkehl-Glanzschwänzchen Metalura tyria
Perija Metaltail Metallura iracunda Rotschwanz-Glanzschwänzchen Metalura Iracunda
Rufous-capped Thornbill Oxypogon ruficeps Kastanienkappen-Glanzschwänzchen Colibrí Capirrufo
Olivaceous Thornbill Oxypogon olivaceus Braunes-Glanzschwänzchen Colibrí Oliváceo
Blue-mantled Thornbill Oxypogon stanleyi Schwarzkopf-Glanzschwänzchen Colibrí de Stanley
Bronze-tailed Thornbill Oxypogon heteropogon Bronzeglanzschwänzchen Colibrí Picoespina
Rainbow-bearded Thornbill Oxypogon herrani Weißspitzen-Glanzschwänzchen Colibrí de Herrán
Bearded Helmetcrest Oxypogon guerinii Helmkolibri Colibrí Chivito
Mountain Avocetbill Opisthoprora euryptera Fleckenbauch-Avosettkolibri Colibrí Picolezna
Grey-bellied Comet@ Taphrolesbia griseiventris Graubauchsylphe Colibrí Ventigris
Long-tailed Sylph Aglaiocercus kingii Himmelssylphe Silfo de King
Violet-tailed Sylph Aglaiocercus coelestis Langschwanzsylphe Silfo Celeste
Venezuelan Sylph@ Aglaiocercus berlepschi Berlepschsylphe Silfo de Berlepsch
Bearded Mountaineer@ Oxypogon nobilis Weißhalssylphe Colibrí Noble
Orange-throated Sunangel Heliangelus mavors Orangekehl-Sonnennymphe Colibrí de Marte
Merida Sunangel@ Heliangelus spencei
Longuemare's Sunangel Heliangelus clarisse Longuemare-Sonnennymphe Colibrí de Clarissa
Amethyst-throated Sunangel Heliangelus amethysticollis Amethystsonnennymphe Colibrí Gorgiamatista
Gorgeted Sunangel Heliangelus strophianus Weißband-Sonnennymphe Colibrí Pectoral
Tourmaline Sunangel Heliangelus exortis Grünband-Sonnennymphe Colibrí Turmalina
Purple-throated Sunangel Heliangelus viola Purpurkehl-Sonnennymphe Colibrí Violeta
Royal Sunangel@ Heliangelus regalis Blaue Sonnennymphe Colibrí Real
Bogota Sunangel@ Heliangelus zusii Smaragdkehl-Sonnênnymphe Colibri de Bogotá
Black-tailed Trainbearer Lesbia victoriae Schwarzschwanzsylphe Colibrí Colilargo Mayor
Green-tailed Trainbearer Lesbia nuna Grünschwanzsylphe Colibrí Coliloargo Menor
Speckled Hummingbird Adelomyia melanogenys Schwarzohrnymphe Colibrí Jaspeado
Blossomcrown@ Anthocephala floriceps Blaßstirnkolibri Colibrí Florido
Ecuadorian Piedtail Phlogophilus hemileucurus Schwarzweißschwanz-Kolibri Colibrí Colipinto Ecuatoriano
Peruvian Piedtail Phlogophilus harterti Hartertkolibri Colibrí Colipinto Peruano
Ecuadorian Hillstar@ Oreotrochilus chimborazo Ecuador-Andenkolibri Colibrí del Chimborazo
Green-headed Hillstar Oreotrochilus stolzmanni Grünkopf-Andenkolibri Colibrí del Stolzmann
Black-breasted Hillstar@ Oreotrochilus melanogaster Schwarzbrust-Andenkolibri Colibrí Pechinegro
Andean Hillstar Oreotrochilus estella Estella-Andenkolibri Colibrí Puneño
White-sided Hillstar Oreotrochilus leucopleurus Weißflanken-Andenkolibri Colibrí Cordillerano
Wedge-tailed Hillstar@ Oreotrochilus adela Rotflanken-Andenkolibri Colibrí de Cochabamba
Green-backed Firecrown Sephanoides sephanoides Chilekolibri Colibrí Austral
Juan Fernandez Firecrown@ Sephanoides fernandensis Juan-Fernandez-Kolibri Colibrí-de-Juan-Fernández

Help with Searching

My work on birds is carried out in a huge database, where I can have all records open at once. However, converting details on over 10,000 species of birds at once into html is not possible, so the information in my database can be accessed via a search engine, or by going to a family group.

Here is some advice on searching. You may like to try the examples cited below to get experience with searching.

You can search on Scientific Name (for example, “Rallus longirostris”); or on English Name (for example, “Clapper Rail”); or on French Name “Râle gris”; or German Name (for example, “Klapperralle”); or Spanish Name (for example “Rascón Piquilargo”). You can search on only one of these at a time. If the search finds a unique match, it will display full details of the species. Note that some of the fields, which may contain large amounts of information, require you to click on a “Click to see full text” to view the information in a separate window.

If the search finds more than one match, it will display all species that match the search term. For example, if you type just “Rallus” against Scientific Name, the detail of all birds in the genus Rallus will be displayed. You are warned against typing a search term that will produce hundreds of records, such as “Flycatcher” under English Name, as the resulting list may overwhelm your computer’s memory.

If you enter a search term under English Synonym ( for example, “Little Cassowary”), if the search finds a unique match, it will display the details of the species to which this name relates (in this case “Dwarf Cassowary” Casuarius bennettii). If the search term finds more than one match among English Synonyms, it will display all species that have a match with the search term ( for example, try just “Cassowary”. This will list all species that have an English synonym that includes the word “Cassowary”.)

You can also search by Scientific Synonym. For example, if you type “Scolopax obscura”, the following record will be displayed:
Scolopax obscura S.G.Gmelin,1784,Reise durch Russland zur Untersuchung der drey Reiche,3,p.90,pl.17. (Shore of Caspian Sea). (= R.a.aquaticus)

The search may retrieve more than one record. For example, if you search for “Rallus gularis”, you will get both the following records:
Rallus gularis Horsfield,1821,Transactions of the Linnaean Society of London,13,pt.1,p.196.(Java.), which is the basis of Gallirallus striatus gularis; and
Rallus gularis Lesson(ex Cuvier MS),”1831”,Traité d'Ornithologie(1830),p.536. (Madagascar). Not Rallus gularis of Horsfield,1821. (= D.c.cuvieri), which is a synonym, though not available because it is pre-occupied, of Dryolimnas cuvieri cuvieri.

Of course if you use a single word as a search term, such as “Hypotaenidia”, your search will produce all synonyms containing this term.

You should be aware that I have reproduced exactly the name as it was cited by the original author. For example, Gallirallus was originally proposed by Lafresnaye,1841 as “Galli-rallus”. And the ligature “æ” was widely used before the twentieth century, as in “Anser cærulescens Bonnaterre,1790”.
I am in the process of going through my file and replacing all instances of spelling which deviate from the modern spelling with, for example, “Gallirallus [as Galli-rallus] Lafresnaye,1841”.
Another problem is that where a citation has abbreviated the name, the abbreviated portions of the name are reproduced in brackets. For example, in G. R. Gray, 1844-49, the genus was abbreviated to the first letter; thus we find C[achinna] herpetotheres.

If you enter a term under Generic Name, if a unique match is found, it should display a single record. For example, if you enter “Rallus”, the following will be displayed:
Rallus Linnaeus,1758,Systema Naturae....editio decima,tom.1,pars 1,p.153.Type,by subsequent designation (Fleming,1821,Memoirs of the Wernerian Natural History Society,3,p.176.),Rallus aquaticus Linnaeus,1758.

Note that this is case-sensitive, for example if you type Rallus, the citation for “Gallirallus” will not be displayed, nor that for “Laterallus”.

Since my checklist is extensively annotated, this search will also display any notes that apply to a generic name. For example, if you searched for “Lyrurus”, the following will be produced:
Lyrurus Swainson,”1831”,in Swainson & Richardson,Fauna Boreali-Americana,2(1832),p.497.Type,by original designation,Tetrao tetrix Linnaeus,1758.
Note!:Madge & McGowan,2002,Pheasants,Partridges and Grouse,p.368 resurrect Lyrurus as a genus:"Though often absorbed within Tetrao,the two species of black grouse form a distinctive pair...both Lyrurus have quite ornate,peculiarly twisted tails and
(ctd!) indulge in communal lekking, which differs considerably from the often solitary "popping" of forest-living capercaillies."

Searching for a Subgeneric name is similar. For example, if you enter “Tricholimnas”, you will get:
Tricholimnas Sharpe,1893,Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club,1,p.28.Type,by original designation,Tricholimnas lafresnayanus (Verreaux) = Gallirallus lafresnayanus J. Verreaux & Des Murs,1860.
And as is usual with subgeneric names, a following note:
Note>:Tricholimnas contains only G.lafresnayanus.

Finally, you can search on Generic or Subgeneric Synonym. If you type “Nesolimnas”, you will get:
Nesolimnas Andrews,1896,Novitates Zoologicae,3,pp.260,266.Type,by monotypy,Rallus dieffenbachii G.R.Gray,1843. (= Hypotaenidea)
The entry on brackets indicates that this is a synonym of the subgeneric name Hypotaenidea.

Note that such searches will not infrequently produce more than one result. This will include cases where a name was originally cited as a Nomen nudum (that is, no type species was designated), and later cited with a valid type species. It will also include cases of Homonyms, where the later name will be marked “Not….”.

If you have any further queries, please email jpenhall@bigpond.net.au