English Name Scientific Name German Name Spanish Name
White-throated Kingbird Tyrannus albogularis Burmeistertyrann
Tropical Kingbird Tyrannus melancholicus Trauertyrann
Couch's Kingbird Tyrannus couchii Texastyrann
Cassin's Kingbird Tyrannus vociferans Cassintyrann
Thick-billed Kingbird Tyrannus crassirostris Dickschnabeltyrann
Western Kingbird Tyrannus verticalis Arkansastyrann
Scissor-tailed Flycatcher Tyrannus forficatus Scherentyrann
Fork-tailed Flycatcher Tyrannus savana Gabeltyrann
Eastern Kingbird Tyrannus tyrannus Königstyrann
Grey Kingbird Tyrannus dominicensis Grautyrann
Loggerhead Kingbird Tyrannus caudifasciatus Bahamatyrann Tirano Guatíbere
Giant Kingbird@ Tyrannus cubensis Kubatyrann
White-naped Xenopsaris Xenopsaris albinucha Kappentachuri
Galapagos Flycatcher@ Myiarchus magnirostris Galapagostyrann
Grenada Flycatcher Myiarchus nugator Grenadatyrann
Rufous-tailed Flycatcher@ Myiarchus validus Rorschwanztyrann
La Sagra's Flycatcher Myiarchus sagrae Sagratyrann
Stolid Flycatcher Myiarchus stolidus Dickkopftyrann
Puerto Rican Flycatcher Myiarchus antillarum Antillentyrann
Lesser Antillean Flycatcher Myiarchus oberi Zimtflügeltyrann
Flammulated Flycatcher@ Deltarhynchus flammulatus Deltaschnabel
Lesser Kiskadee Philohydor lictor Liktor
Great Kiskadee Pitangus sulphuratus Bentevi
Boat-billed Flycatcher Megarynchus pitangua Bauchschnabeltyrann
Rusty-margined Flycatcher Myiozetetes cayanensis Rotschwingentyrann
Social Flycatcher Myiozetetes similis Rotkrontyrann
Grey-capped Flycatcher Myiozetetes granadensis Grauscheiteltyrann
Dusky-chested Flycatcher Myiozetetes luteiventris Weißstirntyrann
White-bearded Flycatcher@ Phelpsia inornata Weißbarttyrann
Yellow-throated Flycatcher Conopias parvus Kopfbindentyrann
White-ringed Flycatcher Conopias albovittatus
Three-striped Flycatcher Conopias trivirgatus Dreistreifentyrann
Lemon-browed Flycatcher Conopias cinchoneti Gelbringtyrann
Golden-bellied Flycatcher Myiodynastes hemichrysus Goldbauchtyrann
Golden-crowned Flycatcher Myiodynastes chrysocephalus Goldkrontyrann
Baird's Flycatcher Myiodynastes bairdii Samtstirntyrann
Streaked Flycatcher Myiodynastes maculatus Streifentyrann
Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher Myiodynastes luteiventris Weißstirntyrann
Piratic Flycatcher Legatus leucophaius Legat
Variegated Flycatcher Empidonomus varius Fleckentyrann
Crowned Slaty-Flycatcher Griseotyrannus aurantioatrocristatus Inkatyrann
Sulphury Flycatcher Tyrannopsis sulphurea Schwefeltyrann
Snowy-throated Kingbird Tyrannus niveigularis Schneekehltyrann
Cinnamon Attila Attila cinnamomeus Zimtattilatyrann Atila Canelo
Ochraceous Attila Attila torridus Ockerattilatyrann Atila Ocre
Citron-bellied Attila Attila citriniventris Gelbbauch-Attilatyrann Atila Citrino
White-eyed Attila Attila bolivianus Weißaugen-Attilatyrann Atila Ojiblanco
Grey-hooded Attila@ Attila rufus Streifenkopf-Attilatyrann Atila Encapuchado
Flammulated Attila Attila flammulatus Feuerfarben-Attilatyrann Atila Flamulado
Bright-rumped Attila Attila spadiceus Gelbbürzel-Attilatyrann Attila Polimorio
Rufous Casiornis Casiornis rufus Zimtrücken-Roteltyrann Burlisto Castaña
Ash-throated Casiornis@ Casiornis fuscus Braunrücken-Röteltyrann Burlisto Gorgigrís
Amazonian Greyish Mourner Rhytipterna frederici Amazonia-Grauschmucktyrann Plañidera Gris de Amazonia
Rufous Mourner Rhytipterna holerythra Zimtschmucktyrann Plañidera Rojiza
Pale-bellied Mourner Rhytipterna immunda Hellbauch-schmucktyrann Plañidera Pálida
Cinereous Mourner Laniocera hypopyrra Tropfenflügeltyrann Plañidera Cenicienta
Speckled Mourner Laniocera rufescens Rötlicher-Tropfenflügeltyrann Plañidera Moteada
Eastern Sirystes Sirystes sibilator Östiger-Sirystestyrann Mosquero Silbador Oriental
Rufous Flycatcher@ Myiarchus semirufus Küstentyrann
Yucatan Flycatcher Myiarchus yucatanensis Yucatantyrann
Sad Flycatcher@ Myiarchus barbirostris Jamaikatyrann
Dusky-capped Flycatcher Myiarchus tuberculifer Kappentyrann
Swainson's Flycatcher Myiarchus swainsoni Swainsontyrann
Venezuelan Flycatcher Myiarchus venezuelensis Venezuelatyrann
Panama Flycatcher Myiarchus panamensis Panamatyrann
Short-crested Flycatcher Myiarchus ferox Kurzschopftyrann
Pale-edged Flycatcher Myiarchus cephalotes Taczanowskityrann
Sooty-crowned Flycatcher Myiarchus phaeocephalus Graustirntyrann
Apical Flycatcher@ Myiarchus apicalis Saumschwanztyrann
Ash-throated Flycatcher Myiarchus cinerascens Graukehltyrann
Nutting's Flycatcher Myiarchus nuttingi Blaßkehltyrann
Great Crested Flycatcher Myiarchus crinitus Schnäppertyrann
Brown-Crested Flycatcher Myiarchus tyrannulus Cayennetyrann
Rufous-tailed Attila Attila phoenicurus Graukopf-Attilatyrann Atila Cabecigris
Atlantic Greyish Mourner Rhytipterna simplex Brazil-Grauschmucktyrann Plañidera Gris Atlantica
Western Sirystes Sirystes albogriseus Westiger-Sirystestyrann Mosquero Silbador Occidental
Hispaniolan Loggerhead Kingbird Tyrannus gabbii
Puerto Rican Loggerhead Kingbird Tyrannus taylori

Help with Searching

My work on birds is carried out in a huge database, where I can have all records open at once. However, converting details on over 10,000 species of birds at once into html is not possible, so the information in my database can be accessed via a search engine, or by going to a family group.

Here is some advice on searching. You may like to try the examples cited below to get experience with searching.

You can search on Scientific Name (for example, “Rallus longirostris”); or on English Name (for example, “Clapper Rail”); or on French Name “Râle gris”; or German Name (for example, “Klapperralle”); or Spanish Name (for example “Rascón Piquilargo”). You can search on only one of these at a time. If the search finds a unique match, it will display full details of the species. Note that some of the fields, which may contain large amounts of information, require you to click on a “Click to see full text” to view the information in a separate window.

If the search finds more than one match, it will display all species that match the search term. For example, if you type just “Rallus” against Scientific Name, the detail of all birds in the genus Rallus will be displayed. You are warned against typing a search term that will produce hundreds of records, such as “Flycatcher” under English Name, as the resulting list may overwhelm your computer’s memory.

If you enter a search term under English Synonym ( for example, “Little Cassowary”), if the search finds a unique match, it will display the details of the species to which this name relates (in this case “Dwarf Cassowary” Casuarius bennettii). If the search term finds more than one match among English Synonyms, it will display all species that have a match with the search term ( for example, try just “Cassowary”. This will list all species that have an English synonym that includes the word “Cassowary”.)

You can also search by Scientific Synonym. For example, if you type “Scolopax obscura”, the following record will be displayed:
Scolopax obscura S.G.Gmelin,1784,Reise durch Russland zur Untersuchung der drey Reiche,3,p.90,pl.17. (Shore of Caspian Sea). (= R.a.aquaticus)

The search may retrieve more than one record. For example, if you search for “Rallus gularis”, you will get both the following records:
Rallus gularis Horsfield,1821,Transactions of the Linnaean Society of London,13,pt.1,p.196.(Java.), which is the basis of Gallirallus striatus gularis; and
Rallus gularis Lesson(ex Cuvier MS),”1831”,Traité d'Ornithologie(1830),p.536. (Madagascar). Not Rallus gularis of Horsfield,1821. (= D.c.cuvieri), which is a synonym, though not available because it is pre-occupied, of Dryolimnas cuvieri cuvieri.

Of course if you use a single word as a search term, such as “Hypotaenidia”, your search will produce all synonyms containing this term.

You should be aware that I have reproduced exactly the name as it was cited by the original author. For example, Gallirallus was originally proposed by Lafresnaye,1841 as “Galli-rallus”. And the ligature “æ” was widely used before the twentieth century, as in “Anser cærulescens Bonnaterre,1790”.
I am in the process of going through my file and replacing all instances of spelling which deviate from the modern spelling with, for example, “Gallirallus [as Galli-rallus] Lafresnaye,1841”.
Another problem is that where a citation has abbreviated the name, the abbreviated portions of the name are reproduced in brackets. For example, in G. R. Gray, 1844-49, the genus was abbreviated to the first letter; thus we find C[achinna] herpetotheres.

If you enter a term under Generic Name, if a unique match is found, it should display a single record. For example, if you enter “Rallus”, the following will be displayed:
Rallus Linnaeus,1758,Systema Naturae....editio decima,tom.1,pars 1,p.153.Type,by subsequent designation (Fleming,1821,Memoirs of the Wernerian Natural History Society,3,p.176.),Rallus aquaticus Linnaeus,1758.

Note that this is case-sensitive, for example if you type Rallus, the citation for “Gallirallus” will not be displayed, nor that for “Laterallus”.

Since my checklist is extensively annotated, this search will also display any notes that apply to a generic name. For example, if you searched for “Lyrurus”, the following will be produced:
Lyrurus Swainson,”1831”,in Swainson & Richardson,Fauna Boreali-Americana,2(1832),p.497.Type,by original designation,Tetrao tetrix Linnaeus,1758.
Note!:Madge & McGowan,2002,Pheasants,Partridges and Grouse,p.368 resurrect Lyrurus as a genus:"Though often absorbed within Tetrao,the two species of black grouse form a distinctive pair...both Lyrurus have quite ornate,peculiarly twisted tails and
(ctd!) indulge in communal lekking, which differs considerably from the often solitary "popping" of forest-living capercaillies."

Searching for a Subgeneric name is similar. For example, if you enter “Tricholimnas”, you will get:
Tricholimnas Sharpe,1893,Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club,1,p.28.Type,by original designation,Tricholimnas lafresnayanus (Verreaux) = Gallirallus lafresnayanus J. Verreaux & Des Murs,1860.
And as is usual with subgeneric names, a following note:
Note>:Tricholimnas contains only G.lafresnayanus.

Finally, you can search on Generic or Subgeneric Synonym. If you type “Nesolimnas”, you will get:
Nesolimnas Andrews,1896,Novitates Zoologicae,3,pp.260,266.Type,by monotypy,Rallus dieffenbachii G.R.Gray,1843. (= Hypotaenidea)
The entry on brackets indicates that this is a synonym of the subgeneric name Hypotaenidea.

Note that such searches will not infrequently produce more than one result. This will include cases where a name was originally cited as a Nomen nudum (that is, no type species was designated), and later cited with a valid type species. It will also include cases of Homonyms, where the later name will be marked “Not….”.

If you have any further queries, please email jpenhall@bigpond.net.au